^ Вверх




 Present Simple

 Present Progressive

 Present Perfect

 Present Perfect Progressive

  • habitual actions or  permanent states

 e.g. She works in a bank. He sometimes goes swimming.

  • actions in progress  happening at/ around the moment of speaking

 e.g. They are looking for a flat at the moment.

  • recently completed  actions connected in their result with the present

 e.g. She has just painted the room


  • actions that started at  some time in the past, continued over a period of time, and have just stopped with the visible present results

 e.g. She has been painting her room. It smells of paint. 

  • universal truths,  generalizations, laws of nature, scientific facts

 e.g. Ice melts when heated.

  • two simultaneous  parallel actions in progress

 e.g. While she’s looking for accommodation, she’s staying with us.


  • actions beginning in the past and continuing up to the present

 e.g. I haven’t seen him for ages.

  • actions that started at  some time in the past, continued over a period of time, and are still happening now

 e.g. She has been waiting for two hours but there’s still no sign of him. 

  • instructions, sports  commentaries, stage directions

 e.g. First you chop the meat, then you fry it.

  • temporary actions

 e.g. He is sleeping at the moment. Prices are rising nowadays.

  • indefinite past actions or experiences

 e.g. She has been to Rome.

 I have never eaten sushi.


  • in exclamatory sentences with There goes... and Here comes...

 e.g. There goes the bus!


  • repeated actions with always, constantly, all the time,  always, continually, forever, again to show annoyance, irritation, criticism

 e.g. He’s always biting his nails.

  • completed past action in the subordinate clause with superlative constructions, ordinal numerals or ‘the only’ in the principal clause

 e.g. It’s the most boring book I’ve ever read. 


  • dramatic narration in summaries of historic events; plots of films, etc.; informal story-telling; headlines

 e.g. 1789. George Washington becomes the first president of the USA. 

  • situations which are changing during the present time

 e.g. The weather is getting hotter and hotter.



  • arranged future actions (timetables, schedules, programmes)

 e.g. The match begins at 8.30 next Monday evening. 

  • definite arrangement or personal plans

 e.g. They are going on an excursion tomorrow.



  • in subordinate clauses of time and condition after conjunctions

 when, after, before, as soon as, until, till, if, in case, unless, on condition that, suppose, supposed, the moment, provided, providing, etc. 

 e.g. If it keeps on raining we’ll have to stay at home. 




 Time expressions: always, usually, generally, seldom, rarely, sometimes, often, frequently, occasionally, twice a year, once a week, every day, once in a while, from time to time, hardly ever, every other day, etc. 

 Time expressions: at the moment, now, at present, just now, right now, still, these days, nowadays, for the time being, tonight, etc

 Time expressions: ever, never, already, yet, lately, recently, just, before, so far, since, since then, etc

 Time expressions: , lately, recently, since, since then, since when, how long, for ages, for a long time, in recent years, over the past three years, etc.



The Present Simple and Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense Forms Compared.


Grammar Practice.


Exercise 1.1. Comment on the usage of the tense forms.

1. It is snowing and the traffic is moving slowly. 12. The bus for Brighton departs in an hour.
2. I never do anything I feel is against my principles. 13. I always complain if the service is bad in restaurants.
3. This area is changing a lot. 14. They are going on an excursion tomorrow.
4. I am forever having problems with this computer. 15. Oil prices are rising at present.
5. First you take the photos and sort them into categories. 16. She is picking me up at 7 o’clock tonight.
6. The match begins at 8.30 next Monday evening. 17. The ferry arrives at 10 a.m.
7. Ice melts when heated. 18. There goes a brave man!!
8. We are having a party on Friday. 19. You are always leaving the bathroom top running.
9. Ice melts when heated. Skill comes with practice.
10. Here comes trouble! 20. He is working hard these days.
11. You are continually interrupting. 21. Stress causes high blood pressure.



Exercise 1.2. Read the answers and then complete the questions.

1. Where ___________________________________? – Sue? She lives at the end of Axwell Road.

2. Do ___________________________________? – Jim? No, I don’t know him.

3. What ___________________________________? – At the moment? I’m doing my homework.

4. Are ___________________________________? – Here? No, we are sitting over there.

5. Why ___________________________________? – I’m wearing two pullovers because I feel cold.

6. When ___________________________________? – Kate? She comes home at 6.30.

7. What ___________________________________? – Italian bread? It tastes of garlic.

8. When __________________________________? – My roommate? She goes to bed at midnight on Saturdays.

9. Where ____________________________________? – Nick goes to Greece every year to visit his family.

10. Who ___________________________________? – Mary? She is dancing with his brother.

11. What ___________________________________? – Well, I am thinking of buying a new car.

12. When _________________________________? – Who? My father? I think he retires at the end of next month.

13. Where ___________________________________? – On Saturday night? She is staying with her parents.

14. Who ___________________________________? – The blue one? The car belongs to Jerry.

15. How much ____________________________________? – This one or that one? That piece of meat weighs about three pounds.

16. What ___________________________________? – Let me see. The bottle contains water.

17. How ___________________________________? – I am feeling much better today.

18. When __________________________________? – The calendar says the sun rises at 5.50 tomorrow morning.

19. What ___________________________________? – It seems she is crying.

20. Who ___________________________________? – Bill and John are watching TV.



Exercise 1.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Progressive.

1. John (paint)_______________ the garage at the moment.

2. Carol can’t swim today, she (have)_______________ a cold.

3. See you in the morning. I (leave)______________ now.

4. What we (eat)_______________ this evening? I’m really hungry!

5. She (have)_______________ lunch with James on Tuesday.

6. Where you (go)_______________? I haven’t finished speaking to you!

7. You (eat)_______________ vegetables every day? – No, I usually (have)_____________ meat at the weekend.

8. He (come)_______________ to see us on Sunday morning.

9. Why you (look)_______________ at me like that? Have I done something wrong?

10. This bus (stop)_______________ outside the Post Office?

11. I (not/take)_______________ the bus to school today. My mother (give)_______________ me a lift.

12. What you (do)_______________ this evening? – I (see)________________ Pete.

13. Don’t worry about the cat. It only (eat)_______________ once a day.

14. How you (get)_______________ on at your new school? - I (hate)_______________ it.

15. I always (have)_______________ problems with this computer.

16. Excuse me, but you (speak)_______________ English? I (look)_______________ for a hotel.

17. She (stay)_______________ with her brother while her house is being repaired.

18. You should go on a diet. You (put)_______________ on weight.

19. They (speak)_______________ German or French? I can’t tell the difference.

20. You always (forget)_______________ your keys.

21. The train from Brussels (arrive)_______________ at Platform 5.

22. Tom always (take)_______________ a cold shower as soon as he (get up)_______________.

23. I never (use)_______________ my mobile phone if I (drive)_______________.

24. Mary (prefer)_______________ to be with Paul because James always (argue)_______________.

25. Maria always (forget)_______________ what time the soap opera (start)_______________.

26. You always (complain)_______________ about the state of the flat but you never (help)_______________ me.

27. Johnny, you (listen)_______________ to me? What you (think)_______________ about?

28. He always (borrow)_______________ money but he always (pay)_______________ me back.

29. I only (work)_____________ there for a couple of months because I (go)_______________ abroad in summer.

30. If you (not listen)_______________ to the radio, why don’t you switch it off?

31. It seldom (get)_______________ very hot in Great Britain.

32. She always (break)_______________ things in the kitchen.

33. It often (snow)_______________ here in winter?

34. I never (do)_______________ anything I (feel)_______________ is against my principles.

35. I (feel)_______________ she (make)_______________ a mistake.

36. More and more people (move)_______________ to the countryside these days.

37. I always (complain)_______________ if the service is bad in restaurants.

38. I (use)_______________ John’s mobile phone because I left mine at home.

39. His only bad habit is that he (talk)_______________ too loudly.

40. You (interrupt)_______________ always me when I (talk)_______________.

41. It (get)_______________ colder and colder every day.

42. Whenever I (see)_______________ Tom he (smoke)__________.

43. The light from the Sun (take)_______________ 8min 20 sec to reach the Earth.

44. Scientists (believe)_______________ that the weather (change)_______________.

45. More and more people (develop)_______________ health problems because of air pollution.

46. The evening performance (start)_______________ at nine o'clock.

47. I (look)_______________ forward to this holiday. The hotel (look)_______________ lovely in the photos.

48. Some people still (think)_______________ that the sun (go)_______________ round the earth.

49. I know he (work)_______________ in a bank. He (take)_______________ the train to work every morning? 

50. Every morning he (wake)_______________ up he (smell)____________ fresh coffee coming from the kitchen.


Exercise 1.4. Study the table of stative verbs that describe a permanent state and do not have continuous forms. Translate the verbs from English into Russian. 


 see, hear, smell, feel, notice, sound, taste, etc. 

 existing or being

 be, consist of, contain, exist, etc. 


 agree, believe, doubt, think/ expect/ consider, forget, imagine, intend, know, realize, recognize, remember, suppose, understand, etc. 

 emotions and feelings

 adore, desire, despise, detest, envy, forgive, hate, loathe, (dis)like, love, need, pity, prefer, trust, want/wish, etc. 


 appear/seem/look, resemble, etc. 


 belong to, have (own), include, lack, own, possess, etc. 

 other verbs

 concern, depend, deserve, fit, matter, mean, mind, owe, require, etc. 



Exercise 1.5. Study the table of stative verbs that have continuous forms but then there is a difference in meaning. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 

Stative Verbs

Action Verbs

 1. I see exactly what you mean. (I understand)

 2. Peter thinks he knows everything. (He believes)

 3. They have a villa in France. (They own)

 4. A baby's skin feels very smooth. (It has a smooth texture)

 5. This soup tastes of garlic. (It has the taste of garlic)

 6. The room smells of fresh flowers. (It has the smell of flowers)

 7. Peter is difficult person to get on with. (His character is difficult)

 8. She looks as if she's going to faint. (She appears)

 9. The patient appears to be recovering. (He seems to be)

 10. Sam now weighs more than his father. (His weight is more than his father’s weight)

 11. My uniform doesn't fit me. (It isn't the right size)

 12. Most people enjoy eating out. (They like in general)

 13. The sign means ‘slow down’.

 1. She is seeing a lawyer tonight. (She's meeting)

 2. He's thinking of studying Law. (He's considering)

 3. He's having problems with his car. (He's experiencing)

 4. He's feeling the engine to see how hot it is. (He's touching)

 5. Why are you tasting the curry? (Why are you testing the flavour?)

 6. Why are you smelling that meat? (Why are you checking its smell?)

 7. Jane is being particularly generous this week. (She is behaving generously)

 8. They are looking at the photos. (They are viewing)

 9. Simply Red are appearing on the stage next week. (They are giving a performance)

 10. The doctor is weighing the baby. (She's finding out its weight)

 11. We are fitting a new kitchen next week. (We are installing)

 12. She is enjoying every minute of her holiday. (She likes specifically)

 13. You are always meaning to call on us, but you never do. (You are intending) 



Exercise 1.6. Fill in with Present Simple or Present Continuous.

1. I (see)_______________ an old friend tonight. – I (see)________________ – so you won't be able to meet me after work, will you?

2. Why you (smell)_______________ the milk? – It (smell)______________ a bit strange. I think it might have gone off.

3. You (enjoy)_______________ reading Jane Austen's novels? – Not usually, but I (enjoy)_______________ this particular one.

4. Why John (be)_______________ so bad tempered today? – I don't know. He (be)_______________ usually so easy to get on with.

5. I (think)_______________ of doing a course in English – What you (think)______________? Is it a good idea?

6. You (have)_______________ the phone number of a good business consultant? – Why? You (have)_______________ problems at work?

7. Why you (taste)_______________ the baby's drink? – It (taste)_______________ a little bitter. I (think)_______________ I'll add some more sugar.

8. John (feel)_______________ OK? He (look)__________ very red in the face. – Yes, I know. I (look)_______________ for the doctor’s telephone number.

9. I hear the Fords (look)_______________ for a bigger house. – Yes, it (look)_______________ as if they are going to move.

10. How much the parcel (weigh)_______________? – I'm not sure. The assistant (weigh)_______________ it at the moment.

11. The singer (appear)_______________ tonight? – Unfortunately not. She (appear)_______________ to have lost her voice.

12. Why you (smell)_______________ the roses? – They always (smell)_______________ so wonderful at that time of the year.

13. You (have)_______________ a car? – Yes, I (have)_______________ some problems with it, so it’s at the garage now.

14. Tom (be)_______________ usually a very quiet boy. – Yes, but he (be)_______________ very noisy today.

15. Why you (feel)_______________ a radiator? – I (not/think)_______________ it (work). It (feel)___________ cold in here.



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Progressive.

(A) Dear Philip!

I (write)_______________ to tell you about my holiday. I (stay)_______________ with my friend in Spain. It (be)_______________ usually sunny at this time of the year, but at the moment it (rain)_______________. Tomorrow morning we (go)_______________ sightseeing and in the evening we (plan)_______________ to go out for a nice meal. We both (enjoy)_______________ Spanish food very much. I (arrive)_______________ home next Saturday.


(B) Dear Kate!

How are you? I (write)_______________ to you from Bali. I (be)_______________ here on holiday. The weather is hot and sunny so I (get)_______________ a great tan. I (get)_______________ up early every morning and (go)________________ swimming in the sea. I (go)_______________ on a boat trip tomorrow morning. I really (look)_______________ forward to it. Right now I (sit)_______________ on the beach. There is a restaurant nearby and the food (smell)_______________ wonderful. I (start)________________ to feel very hungry. Food in Bali (taste)________________ lovely. I must be careful, though, as I (think)_______________ I (put)________________ on some weight. Well, I (come)_______________ home on Tuesday. My parents (meet)__________ me at the airport.


(C) Dear Steve,

I (work)_______________ very hard these days, but I have some good news. Right now, I (sit)_________________ at a desk in the Entertainment section of The Tribute! Of course, I (take)_______________ still journalism classes at night as well. The job is temporary – Joe Sims, the regular reporter, (take)_______________ this month off to write a book. This week we (prepare)_______________ to interview your favourite group, the Airheads. In fact at this very moment they (fly)_______________ into town by helicopter. They (perform)_________________ at the Theatre Royal all week. How you (get)_______________ on? You still (write)_______________? Oops! The crew (call)_______________ me. We (leave)_______________ for the theatre right now. Write soon!  



Exercise 2. Fill in with Present Simple or Present Progressive (Continuous).

1. I (smell)_______________ lavender. Is there a bush in the garden?

2. Quick! Get rid of all this mess! Here (come)_______________ Mum and Dad!

3. You always (complain)_______________ and it (get)_______________ on my nerves.

4. Scientists (believe)_______________ that the climate (change)_______________.

5. I (taste)_______________ cinnamon in this cake. It’s lovely.

6. We (weigh)_______________ the salmon to put a price on it.

7. British summers (get)_______________ hotter and winters (get)_______________ wetter.

8. I (smell)_______________ the lavender. It’s a very strong variety.

9. Is it an inadequate explanation or I (be)_______________ so stupid?

10. I (feed)_______________ the neighbour’s cat this week while she’s in hospital.

11. The dance group (appear)__________ to have arrived at the theatre.

12. The neighbours forever (slam)_______________ the doors and (shout)_______________ during the night.

13. We currently (show)_______________ the film ‘Star Wars’ at all Odeon cinemas in the region.

14. I (see)_______________ why you (want)_______________ to buy a new car. It always (break)_____________ down.

15. Alex Cameron (appear)_______________ as Hamlet at the Royal Theatre all week.

16. My dad (not take)_______________ the bus to work today. His friend (give)_______________ him a lift.

17. What you (do)_______________ this evening? – I (see)_______________ my friend.

18. That carton (contain)_______________ one litre of orange juice.

19. You really (not/expect)_______________ me to eat this stew! It (smell)_______________ awful.

20. Excuse me, but you (speak)_______________ English? I (look)________________ for a hotel.

21. I (have)_______________ problems getting a new phone connection so instead of sending e-mails I (write)_______________ a letter.

22. No wine for me! I (take)_______________ antibiotics for an ear infection.

23. Scientists nowadays slowly (begin)_______________ to understand more about how the brain (work)_______________.

24. What's that noise? It (sound)_______________ like Jane playing her trumpet.

25. More and more people (move)_______________ to the countryside these days.

26. What you (look)_______________ at? – The sky. It (look)_______________ as if it's going to rain.

27. The perfume you (wear)_______________ (smell)_______________ lovely. What is it called?

28. People slowly (realize)_______________ the dangers of global warming.

29. The silk blouse (feel)_______________ soft.

30. Why you (be)_______________ so rude to me today? What’s up?

31. Computers (change)_______________ all the time.

32. I think Kate’s flight (arrive)_______________ at 7 tomorrow morning.

33. Whenever I (put)__________ my hand up, Harry (kick)_______________ me under the desk.

34. Mrs. Adams isn’t in her usual class. They (repair)_______________ her classroom ceiling this week and she (use)_______________ the library as her classroom.

35. A lot of students here (cycle)__________ to college, so I (try)_______________ to find a cheap bike, and I also (think)_______________ of moving nearer to the college. 



The Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Forms Compared.


Grammar Practice.


Exercise 1.9. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous.

1. I (learn)_______________ English at High School. I (learn)_______________ English for three months. I (learn)__________ most of the irregular verbs.

2. Mary (not/arrive)_______________ yet. Do you think she (get)_______________ lost?

3. This is the third letter I (write)_______________ to him.

4. Ann (garden)_______________ all afternoon. She (plant)__________ a lot of rose bushes.

5. Steve (try)_______________ to contact you all day. Where you (be)_______________?

6. He (see)_______________ a lot of Mary recently.

7. Your eyes are red. You (cry)_______________?

8. Look at the mess my papers are in! Who (read)_______________ them?

9. How long the children (sleep)_______________?

10. I (play)_______________ tennis three times this week.

11. My mother (do)_______________ all her Christmas shopping.

12. I (do)_______________ Christmas shopping all day.

13. I (clean)_______________ the car. Doesn’t it look nice?

14. You look tired. – I (wash)_______________ clothes all day.

15. A strong wind (blow)_______________ all day. It (blow)_______________ a tree over.

16. How many driving lessons you (have)_______________?

17. What’s that dent in the side of the car? You (have)_______________ an accident?

18. Your Italian is very good. You (study)_______________ it long?

19. I’m sorry. Nick’s not here, he (go)_______________ to the dentist. He (have)_______________ trouble with his tooth.

20. Do you mind if I clear the table? You (have)_______________ enough to eat?

21. I’m not surprised he (fail)_______________ that exam. He (not/work)_______________ hard recently.

22. Oh, no! The children (cook)_______________. Look at the state of this kitchen!

23. How many times Mary (be)_______________ late for work this week?

24. You (not/buy)_______________ your mother a present? That’s really mean of you!

25. Now where are my keys? This is the third time I (lose)_______________ them today!

26. She (wait)_______________ for two hours but there’s still no sigh of him.

27. Your tennis really (improve)_______________! You (practise)_______________ in secret?

28. Someone (eat)_______________ the sweets. The box is nearly empty.

29. Ben (be)_______________ to Italy several times.

30. She (tell)_______________ lies all her life.

31. I (search)_______________ for a house for weeks now, but so far I (not find)____________ anything suitable.

32. I (feel)_______________ ill since I (get)_______________ up this morning.

33. That man (stand)_______________ outside the shop for hours.

34. The castle (stand)_______________ on that hill for 900 years.

35. A team of experts (excavate)_______________ the site for years and they recently (start)_______________ working in the area with new equipment. 


Exercise 1.10. Put the verbs in brackets into the proper tense forms, comment on the usage of tense forms.

1. She always (criticize)_______________ my appearance. 11. This is the most boring book I ever (read)_______________.
2. It frequently (rain)_______________ non-stop for several days. 12. I (call)_______________ him three times, but he won’t answer the phone.
3. This is the first time I (eat)_____________ sushi. 13. I (not/take)____________ a lot of exercise lately.
4. There (go)_______________ a hero! 14. I (do)_______________ a lot of silly things in my life.
5. She (play)_______________ tennis as professional for three years. 15. I feel dizzy, I (not/sleep)_______________ well.
6. First you (chop)_______________ the meat, then you (fry)_______________ it. 16. The new serial (grow)_______________ in popularity.
7. I (look after)______________ Jack’s dog this weekend. 17. Now he (own)_______________ a large chain of hotels.
8. Computers (change)_____________ all the time. 18. Tom (pick)_______________ me up at 7 o’clock tonight.
9. He (work)_______________ on his CV all day. 19. Practice (make)_______________ perfect.
10. We (go)_______________ on an excursion tomorrow. 20. A lot of people think that the Sun (go)_______________ around the earth.


Present Tenses.


Conversational Grammar.


Exercise 1.11. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.

1. – When Paul and Sue (get married)____________________? – I don’t know. I (not/go)_______________ to their wedding.

2. – Look at that! Someone (leave)_______________ the fridge door again! – It isn’t me! I (not/be)_______________ in the kitchen for hours.

3. – Why you (feel)_______________ Annie’s forehead? – I think she (run)_______________ a high temperature. She (look)_______________ very red in the face.

4. – George (be)_______________ in hospital for two weeks already. – Yes, I (hear)_______________ he (make)_______________ good progress.

5. – I (get)_______________ my job permit next week. – It’s about time. You (wait)_______________ for it for nearly a fortnight.

6. – Ann and you are flatmates, aren’t you? How you (get)_______________ on? – We sometimes (argue)______________, because Ann always (make)_______________ a mess in the kitchen.

7. Look over there! Do you see the man who (wear)_______________ dark glasses and a baseball cap? – Isn’t it Jim Cooper! But he (look)______________ different! He (put on)______________ at least ten pound.

8. – Jim (come)_______________ to terms with his examination results? – Yes. He (accept)_______________ the fact that he’ll have to resit.

9. – Why you (taste)_______________ the soup? Is there anything wrong with it? – Yes, it (taste)_____________ too sweet. I think I (use)______________ sugar instead of salt.  

10. – I (see)_______________ my boss about a pay rise this afternoon. – I (see)_______________. That’s why you (wear)_______________ a suit and a tie.

11. – Jill still (go out)_______________ with Mark, or they (split up)_______________? – In fact, Jill (see)_______________ a lot of Mark recently, though her parents (not/approve)_______________.

12. – We (meet)_______________ some friends for a meal tonight. Would you like to come? – I am afraid, I can’t. I (work)_______________ at the petrol station on Saturday afternoons.

13. – You (hear)_______________ about John’s illness? – Oh yes, bad news (travel)_______________ fast.

14. – I (not/see)_______________ Mary since Jeff’s wedding. I wonder what (happen)_______________ to her. – As far as I know, she (apply)_______________ for several posts this year, but she still (not/manage)_______________ to find what she (look for)__________.

15. – Great to see you, Bob! What you (do)_______________ for the past ten years? – I just (finish)___________ medical training. I (start)_______________ my first job on my own as a doctor in two weeks.  



Exercise 1.12. Read the conversations. Complete it with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. 

(A)  – Hi, Annie. Something (smell)_______________ good. What (cook)_______________?

– Fish soup. I (taste)_______________ it to see if it (need)_______________ more garlic. You (want)_______________ to try it?

– Oh yes. It (taste)_______________ good but I (think)_______________ it (need)_______________ salt.

– OK. I (think)_______________ of adding some tomatoes.

– That (sound)_______________ like a good idea. But wait a minute. I (look)_______________ at the recipe and it (say)_______________ you can add milk. How about that?

– It (seem)_______________ good to me. I’ll check the milk. Oops, it (smell)_______________, I think it (go off)_______________. Let’s tomatoes instead.

– Great. I (enjoy)_______________ cooking! The whole house (smell)_______________ great when you (cook)_______________. And it always (put)_______________ me in a good mood.   


(B)  – Hello, Dad, I am in Bristol. I (pour)______________ with rain. I (wait)_______________ for the bus for half an hour, but it won’t come. I am cold as I (get)_______________ soaked to the skin.

– What you (want)_______________ me to do about it?

– Could you come and pick me up?

– Ted, you always (ask)_______________ me to do this! I (get)_______________ tired of it.

– Please, Dad. I am cold and hungry. My evening classes (start)_______________ at 7.00 and I have to be there on time. Can’t Mum come and get me?

– The Smiths (visit)_______________ us tonight and she is busy in the kitchen. She (bake)______________ a cake at the moment.

– Please Dad. I (ask)_______________ you to do this for me one last time. The success of my presentation tonight (depend)_______________ on you.


 (C) – I (not/see)_______________ you for quite a time, Philip. You (look)_______________ tired. Are you OK?

– I am fine. I (work)_______________ hard all this week, that’s all.

– Oh? What you (do)_______________?

– I (get)_______________ together some articles for my research project. I am quite serious about it. I (join)_______________ the University Students’ Research Society.

– How many article you (read)_______________ so far?

– Quite a lot. I just (find)_______________ an interesting article in the latest issue of Language and Speech.

– How long you (do)_______________ the research?

– For a few months already. I (plan)_______________ to take part in the conference next week.



Present Tenses.




Exercise 1.13. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct present forms. 

(A)  John Smith (train)_______________ for this match for months. He (practise)_______________ at least four hours a day for the last two weeks and he (say)_______________ that now he (feel)_______________ confident. However, he (face)________________ a difficult opponent tonight. Palmer (win)_______________ several games recently, and he (look)_______________ determined to win this one too.


(B)  Louise usually (go)_______________ to work by tube, but today she (go)_______________ there in a chauffeur-driven limousine. The reason for this is that she just (win)________________ the young business person award, and as part of the prize people (treat)_______________ her like royalty.


(C)  Mary (dye)_______________ her hair for years. She (go)_______________ to the hairdresser once a week and (try)_______________ every colour you can imagine. She (say)_______________ she (want)_______________ to match her hair with her clothes. I (ask)_______________ her for ages why she (not/keep)_______________ her natural colour but she says she (forget)_______________ what it is!


(D)  I (try)_______________ to pay for this shirt for ten minutes. Nobody (seem)_______________ to want to serve me. I (try)_______________ complaining but nobody (listen)________________. It’s the worst service I ever (experience)________________. Something ought to be done about it!


(E)  I never (win)_______________ anything like this before! I only (enter)________________ a few competitions in my life so this is a big surprise. I (watch)________________ TV quiz shows for years, but now I (think)_______________ of taking part in more. The prize is wonderful. We (stay)________________ here in Hawaii for ten days now and we (have)________________ a great time. We already (see)________________ all the sights and my wife (buy)_________________ a lot of souvenirs. We (send)________________ postcards to our friends to show them how we (spend)_______________ our time. 




 Past Simple

 Past Progressive

 Past Perfect

 Past Perfect Progressive 

  • action completed in the past when there is a direct or indirect time reference

 e.g. He left an hour ago.

  • past action in progress at a given point in time

 e.g. She was still working at eight o'clock yesterday evening. 

  • past action completed before another past event or before a certain moment in the past

 e.g. She had already typed all the letters before her boss arrived. 

  • duration of a past action occurring before another past action

 e.g. She had been cooking all day long when Tom came home with fish and chips

  • past habitual action

 e.g. He travelled a lot when he was young.


  • past action in progress interrupted by another past action

 e.g. She was leaving when the phone rang.


  • completed past action in the subordinate clause with superlative constructions, ordinal numerals or ‘the only’ in the principal clause when the action refers to the past

 e.g. He was the worst pilot I had ever flown with. 

  • action producing visible result in the past

 e.g. She was covered in paint because she had been painting her room.

  • past actions happening one after the other (succession of past actions)

 e.g. He stood up, got his briefcase and left the office. 

  • simultaneous past actions

 e.g. While Jane was getting dressed, Tom was enjoying his drink.

  • with the verbs hope, intend, plan, expect to describe past intentions which were unfulfilled

 e.g. I had intended to make a cake, but I ran out of flour.


  • actions which won't be repeated

 e.g. Marilyn Monroe starred in "The Seven Year Itch."


  • past actions of unusual frequency to convey a feeling of annoyance, irritation or criticism with the adverbials of frequency always, constantly, all the time,  always, continually, forever, again

 e.g. In those days he was always borrowing money. 



  • when a habitual action is in contrast with the present, ‘used to + Inf’ is used

 e.g. He used to wear his hair long. 

  • a polite request or suggestion referring to the present

 e.g. I was wondering if I could be of any help.




 Time expressions: yesterday, ago, last week, the other day, eventually, finally, in those days, when, at first, then, etc. 

 Time expressions: while, as, all morning/ day, etc.

 Time expressions: by the time, before, after, till/until,  already, just, yet, never, for, etc.

 Time expressions: for, over, since, how long, etc.



Irregular Verbs.


Grammar Practice.


Exercise 2.1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple tense form. 

 bear, beat, begin, bend, bind, bite, blow, burn, burst, buy, catch, choose, cling, cost, creep, cut, deal, dig, dream, drink, drive, dwell 


1. We (eat)__________ dinner at around six, then went out. 14. We (dig)__________ a hole and planted the tree.
2. Yesterday he (beat)__________ me at chess. 15. Dan (buy)__________ the car for $2000.
3. He (bear)__________ the pain stoically. 16. At last the guests (begin)__________ to arrive.
4. She (bite)__________ into a cake and took a sip of coffee. 17. She (cut)__________ her finger on a piece of glass.
5. Rosie (drink)__________ thirstily from a can of cola. 18. I (drive)__________ to work this morning.
6. She (dream)__________ that one day she would be famous. 19. It was a small company that (deal)__________ in rare books.
7. He (blow)__________ the smoke right in my face. 20. The cigarette (burn)__________ a hole in her blouse.
8. The dam (burst)__________ under the weight of water. 21. They (bind)__________ my arms and legs with rope.
9. That meal (cost)__________ us a fortune. 22. His wet shirt (cling)__________ to his body.
10. They (choose)__________ Donald to be their leader. 23. He (creep)__________ back up the stairs, trying to be quiet.
11. I (catch)__________ him reading my letters. 24. A woodsman and his family (dwell)__________ in the middle of the forest.
12. The revolution (bring)_________ many changes. 25. I (bend)__________ down to lift the box off the floor.
13. Marc (burn)__________ his hand on the stove.  



Exercise 2.2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Она сдула пыль с книги. 11. Билеты стоили 10 долларов каждый. 
2. Джон отвез меня в аэропорт. 12. Она тщательно выбирала слова. 
3. Собака укусила моего соседа. 13. Собака поймала мяч. 
4. На вечеринке она пила только сок. 14. Они принесли хорошие новости. 
5. Она мечтала стать знаменитой актрисой. 15. Она сожгла все его письма. 
6. Он нарисовал карту острова. 16. Он ворвался в комнату. 
7. Он разбил окно мячом. 17. Родители купили мне новый компьютер. 
8. Они выкопали маленькую ямку в песке. 18. Мы начали работать над проектом в мае. 
9. Ее сердце забилось быстрее. 19. Я отрезала ему кусок пирога. 
10. Она вынесла все с большим терпением.  20. Он стал известным врачом. 



Exercise 2.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple tense form. 

 dig, fall, feed, feel, fight, flee, fling, fly, forbid, forebear, forget, forgive, freeze, give, grow, grind, hang, hear, hide, hit, hold, hurt, keep, lay, lead, leave, learn, lend, let


1. She (fall)__________ off a ladder and (break)__________ her arm. 16. Two men (freeze)__________ to death on the mountain. 
2. He (feel)__________ better after a good night’s sleep. 17. People (keep)__________ quiet because they were afraid. 
3. They (dig)__________ deeper and deeper but still (find)__________ nothing. 18. His cold behaviour (hurt)__________ her deeply. 
4. He (let)__________ me have a look at that letter. 19. John (grow)__________ two inches in six months. 
5. They (fight)_________ for control of the islands. 20. Philip (hang)__________ his coat on a hook behind the door. 
6. She (lend)__________ me her very expensive coat. 21. He finally (give)__________ us permission to leave earlier. 
7. He (feed)_________ the dogs with leftover food. 22. I (hear)__________ a rumor that he was getting married soon. 
8. She (leave)__________ work early to meet her mother. 23. They (hide)__________ me from the police in their attic. 
9. I (learn)__________ a lot from my father. 24. I (hit)__________ my elbow on the corner of the table. 
10. A wasp (fly)__________ in through the window. 25. The girl (hold)__________ her father’s hand tightly. 
11. She (lead)__________ the horse back into the stable. 26. His attackers turned and (flee)__________. 
12. She (lay)__________ the baby down gently on the bed. 27. People cheered and (fling)__________ their hats into the air. 
13. Her father (forbid)__________ the marriage. 28. I (grind)__________ my teeth as I watched her crying. 
14. She (forget)__________ all about their anniversary. 29. Mary (forbear)__________ to mention her success not to make him envious. 
15. John never (forgive)__________ himself for the accident. 30. He (hurt)__________ his knee playing football.  



Exercise 2.4. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Они разрешили мне посмотреть телевизор. 14. Он повредил ногу, когда играл в футбол.
2. Я одолжил свою машину Джону. 15. Они выращивали овощи в маленьком саду.
3. Я подкармливал растения раз в месяц. 16. Мы повесили ее портрет над камином.
4. Она съела кусочек хлеба и почувствовала себя лучше. 17. Они хотели пить, и я дал им немного молока.
5. Всю свою жизнь он боролся за свободу. 18. Вдруг мы услышали стук в дверь.
6. Я оставила сумку в автобусе. 19. Она спрятала фотографии в ящик стола.
7. Он научился плавать, когда ему было 5 лет. 20. Она ударила его зонтиком по голове.
8. Он положил руку мне на плечо. 21. Я нашел кошелек на улице.
9. Родители запретили мне уходить из дома. 22. Камень пролетел над его головой.
10. Он забыл поблагодарить меня за помощь. 23. Дорога вела через лес.
11. Она простила его за то, что он забыл о ее дне рождения. 24. Она держала ребенка на руках.
12. Я застыл от страха, когда дверь распахнулась. 25. Он швырнул деньги на пол.
13. Ты на час опоздал – что задержало тебя?  


Exercise 2.5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple tense form. 

 lie, light, lose, mean, meet, pay, put, read, ride, ring, rise, saw, sew, shake, shed, shine, shoot, shrink, shut, seek, sell, send, sleep, sing, sink, sit, slide, strive, swing 


1. The baby (sleep)__________ peacefully in its cradle. 16. Marion polished the table until it (shine).
2. We (sit)__________ side by side in the back seat. 17. The aircraft (rise)__________ slowly into the air.
3. I (lie)__________ awake worrying about work. 18. She (shake)_________ the sand out of her shoes.
4. He (sit)__________ back and (light)__________ up a cigarette. 19. Hundreds of people (seek)__________ refuge in the British Embassy.
5. Carol (lose)__________ interest in ballet in her teens. 20. The door (swing)__________ open slowly.
6. Her mother (sing)__________ with the band in the early days. 21. He (send)__________ a dozen red roses to his girlfriend on her birthday.
7. He (shut)__________ his book and looked up. 22. The moon (shine)__________ brightly in the sky.
8. The look on her face (mean)__________ one thing – trouble. 23. I (sell)__________ one customer five pairs of shoes yesterday.
9. We (read)__________ about the accident in the local paper. 24. My sweater (shrink)__________ in the dryer.
10. They (meet)__________ last week to discuss the project. 25. His feet (sink)__________ deeper and deeper into the mud.
11. Ray (pay)__________ some kids to wash the car. 26. Daniel (slide)__________ out of the room when no one was looking.
12. I (ring)_________ the doorbell but no one came. 27. She (strive)__________ daily to be the perfect wife and mother.
13. I (put)__________ my wallet in your bag by mistake. 28. The candle (shed)__________ a dim glow over her face.
14. She (sew)_________ up that hole in my trousers. 29. They (shoot)__________ arrows from behind the thick bushes.
15. They (ride) to the wedding in a carriage. 30. We (saw)___________ off the dead branches.



Exercise 2.6. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Он встретил нас всех на станции. 14. Он продал свою машину Джону за $2000.
2. Она поставила стакан на стол. 15. Он сел за стол, чтобы написать письмо.
3. Книга лежала открытой на столе. 16. Его семья потеряла все, когда сгорел их дом.
4. Он заплатил мне за ремонт машины. 17. Они спели несколько старых песен.
5. Я пошел пешком, а все другие поехали на машине. 18. Она легла на кровать и закрыла глаза.
6. Ее волосы блестели как серебро. 19. Я зажег огонь и сел возле камина.
7. Она искала помощи у соседей. 20. Я не понял, что он имел в виду.
8. Она сама шила одежду для детей. 21. Той ночью мы оба плохо спали.
9. Все ученики вышли из класса, когда прозвенел звонок. 22. Она оставила работу и уехала в Европу.
10. Мы послали ей письмо с извинениями. 23. Он подмел дорожку перед домом.
11. Девочка прибежала домой в слезах. 24. И в этот момент зазвонил телефон.
12. Цены поднялись на 5%. 25. Она достала письмо из сумки и прочитала его мне.
13. Его голос дрожал, когда он просил прощения.  



Exercise 2.7. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple tense form. 

 smell, speak, spill, spoil, spread, stand, steal, sting, stick, strike, swear, sweep, swim, teach, tear, tell, think, throw, understand,  wake, wear, win, write 


1. Our skiing team (win)__________ a gold medal at the Olympics. 14. The teacher (tell)__________ the children to sit down quietly.
2. She (wear)__________ her hair loose. 15. He picked up the envelope and (tear)__________ it open.
3. The teacher (write)__________ the answers on the board. 16. Thieves (steal)__________ paintings worth $5 million from a Paris art gallery.
4. The soup (smell)__________ delicious. 17. He (teach)__________ geography at the local secondary school.
5. He (speak)__________ very quietly. 18. When he was sitting in the garden, a wasp (sting)__________ him on his arm.
6. He (stand)_________ looking at them in silence. 19. Victor (swear)__________ he would get his revenge.
7. Alan (wake)__________ to a quiet knocking on his door. 20. Linda (sweep)__________ the coins into her purse.
8. Ben asked a few questions to make sure he (understand)__________ what to do. 21. Slowly and carefully I (swim)__________ round the dark walls of the castle.
9. He (throw) a handful of money onto the table. 22. Fire quickly (spread)__________ through the building.
10. He slipped and the wine (spill)__________ all over the carpet. 23. Someone (stick)__________ posters all over the walls.
11. Danny was her favourite grandson and she (spoil)__________ him rotten. 24. A snowball (strike)__________ him on the back of the head.
12. We (spread)__________ the blanket on the grass and sat down on it. 25. She (think)__________ very carefully before answering.
13. Clark called him "Mule," and the name (stick)__________.  



Exercise 2.8. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Он рассказал нам забавную историю. 14. Ребенок разлил молоко на стол.
2. Вскоре огонь распространился по всему дому. 15. Кто-то бросил камень в машину.
3. Он проснулся в 5 и почувствовал себя лучше. 16. Он склеил два листа бумаги вместе.
4. Я написал ей несколько писем, но она не ответила. 17. Нам понадобилось больше времени, чем мы думали.
5. Мой отец научил меня плавать. 18. Он поклялся никогда не возвращаться в этот город.
6. Его одежда пахла дымом. 19. Плохая погода испортила их отдых.
7. Он порвал письмо на кусочки, не читая его. 20. В конце его речи все встали и захлопали.
8. Она выиграла $ 3 000 в лотерею. 21. Мяч ударил его в левое плечо.
9. Моя подруга всегда носила яркие цвета. 22. Буквы поплыли перед ее глазами.
10. Я позвонил в офис и поговорил с секретарем. 23. Он не сказал ей правду, и она никогда не узнала о его исчезновении.
11. Он улыбнулся, как будто все понимал. 24. Корабль утонул, но команда спаслась.
12. Он украл деньги у своих родителей. 25. Она бросилась на кровать и расплакалась.
13. Он неправильно записал мое имя, «s» вместо «c».  



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 2.9. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple tense form.

1. The door (burst)__________ open and Tom (run)__________ into the room. 14. She (spread)__________ her arms and the child (run)__________ to her.
2. She (wake)__________ up and (find)__________ herself in a hospital bed. 15. She  (tear)__________ the letter to pieces and (throw)__________ it in the bin.
3. The robin (shake)__________ its feathers and (fly)__________ away. 16. I (put)__________ some antiseptic on the cut and it (sting)__________ for a moment.
4. He (go)__________ and (sit)__________ beside her. 17. Gordon (fall)__________ from his bike and (strike)___________ his head on the ground.
5. She (shut)__________ her eyes and (fall)__________ asleep immediately. 18. She (kneel)__________ on the floor and (put)__________ more wood on the fire.
6. We (get)__________ onto the bus and (ride)__________ into London. 19. He (win)__________ the first set but (lose)__________ the next two.
7. Several people (run)__________ to help her when she (fall)__________. 20. Sally (wring)__________ out the socks and (hang)__________ them on the towel rack.
8. My uncle (buy)__________ and (sell)__________ old books for a living. 21. She (dip)__________ her head in the pillow, (close)__________ her eyes, and (weep)__________.
9. People (speak)__________ of their fear as the level of water (rise)__________. 22. She (take)__________ off her shoes and (tread)__________ barefoot on the soft grass.
10. Dad (say)__________ he (wake)__________ up at five this morning. 23. He (thrust)__________ some money into my hand and (tell)__________ me to drive him to the airport.
11. I (think)__________ her name was Catherine, but she (spell)__________ with a ‘K’. 24. The old man (strike)__________ a match and (light)__________ his pipe.
12. The boys (break)__________ into a shop and (steal)__________ £45 in cash. 25. The two men (shed)__________ their coats and (sit)__________ down facing each other.
13. She (throw)__________ the ball up and (catch)__________ it again.  



The Past Simple and Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense Forms Compared.


Grammar Practice.


Exercise 2.10. Read the answers and then complete the questions.

1. How many times ____________________________________? – He went to the cinema five times last month. Could you believe it?

2. What ____________________________________? – This time last year? I was travelling across Africa.

3. When ____________________________________? – They got the telegram at midnight.

4. How many ____________________________________? – As far as I can remember Shakespeare wrote at least 36 plays.

5. Why ____________________________________? – Well, she didn’t feel well, so she left the party rather early.

6. When ____________________________________? – Cathy? I first met her two years ago.

7. Who ____________________________________? It’s reported that Sam was driving at the time of the accident.

8. What letter ____________________________________? – You know the other day we got a strange letter from Jack.

9. ____________________________________ or ____________________________________? – Watching TV? Oh no, I was revising for my exam all night yesterday.

10. Why ____________________________________? – I called Jim to tell him good news.

11. How long ____________________________________? – You won’t believe it, but it took Mary only a month to decorate her flat.

12. When ____________________________________? – As far as I know she joined our company two years ago.

13. Why ____________________________________? – They put off the match because of the heavy rain.

14. What ____________________________________? – So you spent a sleepless night as well. Our neighbours were celebrating their silver anniversary all night yesterday.

15. Where ____________________________________? – She bought a nice pair of shoes at Macy’s.



Exercise 2.11. Choose the correct tense form using the Past Simple or the Past Progressive.

1. Two burglars (break)_______________ into the house while we (watch)_______________ TV.

2. What you (do)_______________ when the police officer (knock)_______________ on the door?

3. When Jack (prepare)_______________ lunch, he (cut)_______________ his finger.

4. While I (wait)_______________ for the bus, I (meet)_______________ Karen.

5. I (wash)_______________ up while he (dry)_______________ the dishes.

6. When Harry (wake up)_______________, we (tell)_______________ him the good news.

7. Everyone (wait)_______________ for the concert to begin when a message (arrive)_______________.

8. I (lie)_______________ in the bath when the phone (ring)_______________. It (stop)_______________ after a few rings.

9. When I (open)_______________ a cupboard door, a pile of books (fall)_______________ out.

10. When I (walk)_______________ in they all (talk)_______________ about the babies.

11. At six o’clock this morning I (have)_______________ a wonderful dream, but then the alarm (go)_______________ off.

12. I (see)_______________ Sid when I (come)_______________ to work this morning. He (shop)____________.

13. This time yesterday I (lie)_______________ on the beach and you (study)_______________ in the library.

14. When Jake (come)_______________ in everybody (stop)_______________ talking.

15. I (look)_______________ out of the window and (see)_______________ that we (fly)_______________ over the mountains.

16. While my Dad (paint)_______________ the ceiling he (spill)_______________ some paint on the floor.

17. In those days he (borrow)_______________ always money and (forget)_______________ to pay it back.

18. She (drink)_______________ some water and (lie)_______________ back against the pillows.

19. I (go)_______________ to see how she (be)_______________ and (find)_______________ she (cry)_______________.

20. I (work)_______________ upstairs when the accident (happen)_______________.

21. When she (hear)_______________ the news, she (begin)_______________ to cry.

22. In May last year, she (study)_______________ hard for her final exam.

23. While I (drive)_______________ along this morning, I (think)____________________ about what you’d said.

24. Mary (not/wear)_______________ her glasses at the time, so she (not/notice)_______________ what kind of car the man (drive)_______________.

25. While I (try)_______________ to get the car started, a passing car (stop)_______________ and the driver (offer)_______________ to help me.

26. I (walk)________________ along the street when suddenly I (feel)________________ something hit me in the back. I (not know)_______________ what it (be)_______________.

27. Your friend who (come)_______________ here the other day (seem)_______________ very nice. I (enjoy)_______________ meeting him.

28. When I (see)_______________ the man he (stand)_______________ outside the bank. He (wear)_______________ dark coat and a black baseball cap.

29. The airport (be)_______________ full of people. Some (sleep)_______________ on benches, some (shop)_______________, others (read)_______________. Everyone (wait)_______________ for news of the delayed plane.

30. The wind (blow)_______________ and the rain (beat)_______________ down. John (stand)_______________ at the bus stop. He (try)_______________ to imagine being at home sitting by a warm fire. Finally he (see)_______________ the headlights of the bus approaching from the distance.



The Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Forms Compared.


Grammar Practice. 


Exercise 2.12. Choose the right variant.

1) The restaurant was packed last night. Luckily, we _____ a table in advance.

1. was booking    2. had booked    3. had been booking    4. booked
2) There was a power cut last night. What _____ when the lights went out?
1. was you doing    2. did you do    3. had you been doing    4. were you doing
3) Tom _____ the piano for years before he became famous.
1. was practicing    2. had been practicing    3. practiced    4. has been practicing
4) They _____ a house for six months before they found one they liked.
1. were looking for    2. had been looking    3. have been looking    4. had looked
5) No sooner _____ into the house than the telephone rang.
1. he went    2. he had gone    3. had he gone    4. did he go
6) Ann _____ the table, but Jane was still cooking dinner.
1. had lain    2. had laid    3. had been lying    4. was laying
7) When I found my wallet, I discovered that someone _____ my driving license out of it.
1. has taken    2. took    3. was taking    4. had taken
8) Mary _____ her old coat for years so she decided to buy a new one.
1. was wearing    2. had worn    3. has been wearing    4. had been wearing
9) I soon _____ that he was the worst pilot I _____ with.
1. realized, have ever flown    2. had realized, had ever flown    3. realized, had ever flown    4. realize, has ever flown
10) Why are you so disappointed? – Because I _____ that I would pass the test, but I didn't.
1. hoped    2. had hoped    3. was hoping    4. has hoped
11) How did you tear your dress? – I _____ on it as I _____ out of the car.
1. stepped, was getting    2. was stepping, got    3. had stepped, got    4. stepped, got
12) She said she _____ Pedro twice while she _____ in Madrid.
1. had met, had been staying    2. met, stayed    3. met, has been staying    4. had met, was staying
13) I felt dizzy because I _____ in the sun for too long.
1. have been laying    2. was lying    3. had been lying    4. had been laying
14) I was wet because as I _____ back from the shop it started to rain.
1. had been going    2. had gone    3. have been going    4. was going
15) We waited until the sun _____ down before we _____ of on a trip.
1. would go, set    2. had gone, had set    3. went, set    4. had gone, set



Exercise 2.13. Choose the correct tense form using the Past Simple or the Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous).

1. By the time we (arrive)_______________, the party (finish)_______________.

2. They (lock)_______________ the gates before I (get)_______________ there.

3. I (ring)_______________ the shop quickly as soon as I (check)_______________ the contents of the box.

4. After we (discuss)_______________ it on the phone, I (write)_______________ him a letter about it.

5. We (have)_______________ a good rest, when all the guests (leave)_______________.

6. I (know)_______________ I (see)_______________ her before somewhere.

7. When she (ring)_______________ the office this morning, Jim already (go out)_______________.

8. Before we (take)_______________ him to the theatre, he never (see)_______________ a stage before.

9. When I (get)_______________ home, I (find)________________ that Jill (paint)_______________ her room.

10. I (be)_______________ sorry that I (not/be)_______________ nicer to him.

11. Nobody (come)_______________ to the meeting because Mary (forget)_____________ to tell people about it.

12. We (sleep)_______________ for 12 hours when he (wake)_______________ us up.

13. Because he (not/check)_______________ the oil for so long, the car (break)_______________ down.

14. All the people we (invite)______________ came to the party, and some that we (not/invite)_______________.

15. They never (find)_______________ where he (hide)_______________ the money.

16. I (tell)_______________ him to drive more slowly, but he (choose)_______________ to ignore my advice.

17. When she (come)_______________ in, we all (know)_______________ where she (be)_______________.

18. The lesson already (start)_______________ when I (arrive)_______________.

19. After I (finish)_______________ the report, I (realize)_______________ that it (be)_______________ too late to post it.

20. By the time we (get)_______________ to the stadium the match (start)_______________.

21. I (think)_______________ about that before you (mention)_______________ it.

22. The students just (open)_______________ the books when the alarm (go)_______________ off.

23. He (take)_______________ me to the kitchen and (ask)_______________ if I (have)_______________ breakfast.

24. He (shout)_______________ so loudly that he (have)_______________ a sore throat.

25. The party (be)_______________ a great success because we (prepare)_______________ for it all week.

26. We (look for)______________ her ring for two hours and then we (find)_______________ it in the bathroom.

27. Nick (show)_______________ the teacher the picture which he (draw)____________________.

28. Susan (think)_______________ about the idea for a while before she (make)_______________ the suggestion.

29. She (feel)_______________ much safer after she (lock)_______________ all the doors.

30. She (save)_______________ for a long time before she (buy)_______________ her ticket to Australia.

31. I (clean)_______________ the carpet when the dog (come)_______________ in and (shake) himself.

32. We (make)_______________ chicken soup so we (offer)_______________ her some when she (come)_______________ in.

33. Doors (swing)________________ open and then (shut)_______________ when the hospital porters (push)_______________ a patient down the corridor.

34. We (live)_______________ in Sydney for ten years when the company Jack (work)_______________ for (offer)________________ him a position at the London office.

35. When I (get)_______________ home, I (find)________________ that someone (break)_______________ into my flat and (steal)_______________ my fur coat.



Exercise 2.14. Put the verbs in the Present Perfect or Past Perfect.

1. It isn't raining now. It (stop)__________ at last. 9. I spoke to Mary at lunch-time. Someone (tell)__________ her the news earlier.
2. We had no car at that time. We (sell)__________ our old one. 10. I was really tired. I (have)_________ a hard day.
3. It'll soon be warm in here. I (turn)__________ the heating on. 11. Don't you want to see this programme? It (start)__________.
4. The park looked awful. People (leave)__________ litter everywhere. 12. At last the committee was ready to announce their decision. They (make)__________ up their minds.
5. You can have the newspaper. I (finish)__________ with it. 13. It was twenty to six. Most of the shops just (close)__________.
6. There's no more cheese. We (eat)__________ it all, I'm afraid. 14. That man looks familiar. I (see)__________ him somewhere before.
7. There was no sign of a taxi, although I (order)__________ one half an hour before. 15. My wallet wasn't there. I (leave)__________ it behind.
8. The bill isn't right. They (make)__________ a mistake. 16. Ann didn’t understand why her friend (send)__________ her such a strange letter.



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 2.15. Put the verbs in brackets into the proper tense forms, comment on the usage of tense forms.

1. Few people in Victorian times (take)__________ a bath every day. 11. We (walk)__________ along the street when a car (stop)__________ next to us.
2. I (see)__________ Rita a minute ago but she (go)__________ straight past me. 12. They (sail)__________ for a month before they (reach)__________ the port.
3. As I (drive)__________ home I (listen)__________ to music on the car-radio. 13. They (discuss)__________ the plan at midnight.
4. In those days people (to wash)__________ their clothes by hand. 14. He always (go)__________ to work by train.
5. She (tear)__________ the letter into pieces and (throw)__________ it into the bin. 15. He (leave)__________ the work because he (feel)__________ dissatisfied for months.
6. I (take)__________ a shower when the phone (ring)__________. 16. She (get)__________ on the motorbike and (ride)__________ away.
7. By the second day at camp he (make)__________ several friends. 17. In those days she constantly (criticize)__________ my appearance.
8. The room was empty – everyone (go)__________ out. 18. He (work)__________ late at night.
9. When I was a child I (to go)__________ to the cinema every Sunday. 19. She (miss)__________ the end of the film because she (fall)__________ asleep.
10. Meg (lie)__________ in the sun while the children (play)__________ in the pool.  



The Past Simple and Present Perfect (Progressive) Tense Forms Compared.


Exercise 2.16. Study the table. 

 Present Perfect (Progressive)

 Past Simple

  • It's used to talk about things that started in the past, continued up to the present and may continue into the future.

 e.g. I have lived in Ohio my whole life. 

  • It's used to talk about things that happened and were completed in the past.

 e.g. I moved there ten years ago.

  • It's used to talk about things that happened at an unspecified time in the past.

 e.g. She's read a book about heli-skiing.

  • It's used to talk about things that happened at a specific time in the past.

 e.g. She read a book about heli-skiing last week.

  • It's used to talk about things that have happened in a period that is not finished. It is used with since, ever since to indicate a starting point of the action; for, over, in to indicate a certain period of time.

 e.g. She has had three cups of coffee this morning.

  • It's used to talk about things that happened in a period that is finished.

 e.g. She typed three e-mails yesterday. 

  • It’s used with adverbs ever, never, already, yet, lately, recently, just, before, so far, etc. to indicate an indefinite period of time.

 e.g. I have only recently sent her an invitation.

  • It’s used with adverbs of definite time yesterday, ago, last week, the other day, in those days, eventually, finally, etc.

 e.g. Last night my neighbours celebrated their wedding anniversary. 



Grammar Practice.


Exercise 2.17.  Choose the correct tense form using the Past Simple, Present Perfect or Present Perfect Progressive.

1. He (be)_______________ ill before Christmas, but he (be)_______________ fine ever since.

2. We (be)_______________ here for hours. Are you sure we (come)_______________ to the right place?

3. Since I (leave)_______________ school, I (travel)_______________ a lot. So far I (visit)_______________ eight countries.

4. The company (buy)_______________ some land, but then it (sell)_______________ it.

5. For the last two weeks there (be)_______________ several crashes at this crossroads.

6. Several bombs (go)_______________ off in the city centre. It (happen)_______________ an hour ago.

7. I'm sorry about not coming last week. I (have)_______________ a cold and so I (stay)____________ at home.

8. Harry (not look)_______________ well since he (go)_______________ on a diet.

9. It says in the paper that they (discover)_______________ oil in Wales. They (look for)_______________ it for ages.

10. Last week I (lose)_______________ my scarf, and now I just (lose)_______________ my gloves.

11. You (see)_______________ my calculator? I'm sure I (leave)_______________ it here earlier.

12. I can't find my diary. What you (do)_______________ with it? – I (put)_______________ it in your drawer last night.

13. Who (give)__________ Shakespeare his first job?

14. My jacket (catch)_______________ on a nail and (tear)_______________.

15. Yuri Gagarin (make)_______________ his historic flight in 1961. Many astronauts (fly)_______________ into space ever since.

16. Columbus (not discover)_____________ America: the Indians already (know)_______________ where it was.

17. That’s perhaps the tenth cup of coffee he (drink)_______________.

18. Mary is upset because she (tear)_______________ her new dress.

19. Rupert (leave)_______________ a message for you. He (ring)________________ last night.

20. I (look)_______________ at her face and just (know)_______________ that she (lie)_______________.

21. Henry (leave)_______________ home rather early and we (not/hear)_______________ from him since then

22. What’s the matter? You (hurt)_______________ your leg? How you (do)_______________ it?

23. She (bite)_______________ into a croissant and (take)_______________ a sip of coffee.

24. Last month I (stay)_______________ in a hotel in Paris which (cost)_______________ me $150 a night.

25. The police officer (take)_______________ her arm and (lead)_______________ her gently away.

26. The branch (spring)_______________ back and (hit)_______________ him in the face.

27. When I (leave)__________ school I (cut)_______________ my hair and (wear)_______________ it short ever since.

28. Everything (go)______________ well and we (have)______________ any problems with the new pupil so far.

29. The kids (watch)_______________ as the coin (sink)_______________ to the bottom of the pool.

30. Brad (get)_______________ up and (shake)_______________ his legs to get all the grass off.

31. Children (enjoy)_______________ games since the first humans (walk)_______________ on the Earth thousands of years ago.

32. Thousands of gallons of oil (flow)______________ into the river when an oil pipeline (burst)______________.

33. Hampshire police (find)_______________ the dangerous snake which (go)_______________ missing earlier in the week.

34. This tooth (kill)_______________ me lately! So I (make)_______________ an appointment with the dentist for Tuesday.

35. He (leave)_______________ school three years ago, then he (work)_______________ in France for a few months before coming back to England.

36. I (not trust)_______________ my cleaning lady since she (break)_______________ all those plates and (say)_______________ it (be)_______________ the cat.

37. It (be)_______________ ages since I (write)_______________ to you but I (be)_______________ very busy since we (decide)_______________ to move to the country.

38. You won't believe this, but I (get)_______________ some tickets for the concert. – Oh, well done. How you (get)_______________ them?

39. I (ski)_______________ when I (be)_______________ at university, but I (break)_______________ a leg five years ago and since then I (not/do)_______________ any skiing.

40. There (be)_______________ quite a few changes since Jane (come)_______________ to work in the shop. For the last few years, the shop (sell)_______________ fruit and vegetables from all over the world.


Exercise 2.18. Insert the proper tenses. 

(A) George (arrive)______________ late to work again this morning. He (be)_______________ late at least five times this month. The supervisor (speak)_______________ to him about it yesterday but he obviously (not/pay)_______________ any attention.


(B) John Keats, who (die)_______________ when he (be) only 26 years old, (write)_______________ a lot of beautiful poems. I (read)___________ most of his poetry, but I never (manage)_______________ to get to the end of Endymion as it’s too long for me!


(C) Clare (be)_______________ in New York for almost a year now. I (go)_______________ to visit her last month and I have to say I (be)_________________ very impressed. I (visit)_______________ most of the major cities in Europe but I never (see)_______________ any place as exciting as the Big Apple.


(D)      I (see)______________ five films this month, but I (not/like)_______________ any of them very much. Actually, I think the films they (make)_______________ ten years ago (be)______________ much better than anything I (see)_______________ for ages.


(E) Sue (be)________________ involved in sports for more than 25 years. Her first interest (be)_______________ gymnastics, which she (do)_______________ since she (be)_______________ ten. She (be)_______________ a keen cyclist since 1980 when she (make)_______________ her first bicycle tour of Europe. Last year she (decide)_______________ to take some time off so she can write a book about the role of women in sports. Since Sue (be)_______________ part of the sporting world for so long, her book should be fascinating.



Past Tenses.


 Conversational Grammar.


Exercise 2.19. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.

1. – Excuse me, but this seat is mine! – I am sorry. I (not/know)_______________ that you (sit)_______________ here.

2. – Why are you late? – Oh Jenny (get)_______________ ready at six o’clock.

3. – How long you (learn)_______________ Italian? – I (start)_______________ learning the language when I (be)_______________ six.

4. – I (live)_______________ in Germany for five years now. I (move)_______________ here in 2005. – I (live)_______________ in Berlin for a time, but I (live)_______________ in Rome now.

5. – You hair (look)_______________ different last night. – I know – I (want)_______________ to dye it, but I (not/realise)_______________ until it (be)_______________ too late that I (buy)______________ the wrong colour.

6. – You (look)_______________ miserable. What’s up? – I (work)_______________ on my thesis when my computer suddenly (make)_______________ a strange sound and the screen (go)_______________ blank.

7. – What (be)_______________ wrong with Jim at the party last night? – I don’t know. He (get)_______________ up, (burst)_______________ out of the room and (slam)_______________ the door.

8. – George really ought to lose some weight. – You’re right. He (breath)_______________ very heavily when he (climb)_______________ the stairs yesterday.

9. – You (get)_______________ to see Helen in the end? – No, she (leave)_______________ for the airport when we (arrive)_______________ at her home.

10. – It’s a pity she had to pull out of the competition. – Yes, especially, since she (make)_______________ such excellent progress. 

11. – I (need)_______________ a holiday. I only (have)_______________ two days off this year. – Yes, but last year you (go)_______________ on holiday four times!

12. – I (try)_______________ to get in touch with you all day yesterday?  What you (do)_______________ when I last (call)_______________ at 7? – I (lie)_______________ in the bath. I (hear)_______________ the phone ringing but it (stop)_______________ after a few rings.

13. – I see you (get)_______________ soaked to the skin. How it (happen)_______________? -  I (not/realise)_______________ that I (leave)_______________ the umbrella on the bus until it (start)__________ to rain.

14. – Thank you for looking after my dog while I (be)_______________ on holidays! – Well, you know we (have)_______________ a terrible time looking after Spot. It constantly (chase)_______________ the cats next door.

15. – The news of your new job (sound)_______________ great. But what about your old job at the tourist office then? – Well, I (work)_______________ there for ten years and I quite (enjoy)_______________ the job but I (want)_______________ to do something different so I (start)_______________ a new job at the sailing centre.    



Exercise 2.19. Read the conversations. Complete it with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. 

(A)  – You (stand)_______________ here when the accident (happen)_______________?

– Yes, we (wait)_______________ at the bus stop when we first (notice)________________ the car.

– The car (speed)_______________ when it (get)_______________ to the junction?

– Yes, it (go)_______________ very fast when it (reach)_______________ the corner. But those men (cross)_______________ on a red light when the car (hit)_______________ them.

– The driver (stop)_______________ when he (see)_______________ the men?

– As far as I could see the driver (talk)_______________ on his mobile phone while he (drive)_______________ that’s why he (not/stop)_______________ in time. But the men (not/pay)_______________ attention either while they (cross)_______________.

– It (snow)_______________ when the accident (happen)_______________?

– No, it (stop)_______________ by that time and the road was very slippery.


(B)  – David, you just (win)_______________ the marathon. Congratulations! You (train)_______________ for it for a long time?

– For more than five years. I (plan)_______________ to enter the race since I (watch)_______________ the Boston Marathon.

– The start of the race was rather dramatic, wasn’t it?

– Yes, up to that point we (laugh)_______________ and (joke)____________________, but we (be) serious when we (line)____________________ up.

– You (trip)_______________ during the race. How long you (run)_______________ when that (happen)_______________?

– By that time we (run)_______________ for almost three hours. Luckily it (not/keep)_______________ me from winning.

– You (look)_______________ very calm when you (cross)_______________ the finishing line. You (expect)_______________ to win?

– Well, I (be)_______________ really surprised. And very happy.


(C)  – You (have)_______________ a good meal at Hilary’s?

– Well no. It (be)_______________ the most embarrassing experience I ever (have)_______________. When we (arrive)_______________, we (know)_______________ immediately that she (forget) about the whole thing.

– So what she (do)_______________?

– Well, she (pretend)_______________ that she (not/forget)_______________ and (say)_______________ that the meal (not/be)_______________ ready because she (get)_______________ home from work very late.

– Oh no, how mean of her. She forever (do)_______________ things like that!



Past Tenses.




Exercise 2.20. Insert the proper tenses.


(A)    Last year Tom and Fiona (decide)_______________ to buy a house. They (save)_______________ for ages and by the end of May they (put up)_______________ enough for the deposit on a house. They (live)_______________ in a tiny flat at the time and Fiona (insist)________________ that she (want)_______________ a house with a big garden. They (search)_______________ for only a few days when they (find)________________ exactly what they (look for)________________. Unfortunately, when they (look)______________ more closely at the interior, they (see)_______________ that whoever (live)________________ there before, (make)_______________ an absolute mess of the walls and the floors. Still, Fiona (manage)________________ to convince Tom that despite all that, the house (be)______________ the perfect home for them.


(B)    Last summer some of my friends and I (arrange)_____________ to go camping. We (look)_______________forward to going for weeks when finally the date of departure (arrive)_______________. We (load)______________ the car with our luggage and (set off)_______________ early in the morning. Shortly, afterwards, while we (travel)_______________ along the motorway, we (notice)______________ that the car (make) a strange sound. Pete, who (drive)________________ very fast, suddenly (stop)_______________ the car. To our surprise the boot was wide open – whoever (load)_______________ the luggage (not/close)________________ it properly, and everything (fall out)_______________!   


(C)    In 1894 a steamship (sail)_______________ across the Atlantic Ocean from England to America. The sun (shine)_______________ and a light breeze (blow)_______________. The ship (sail)_______________ for three weeks and (be)_______________ halfway to its destination – New York. The passengers (relax)_______________ on deck when suddenly they (hear)_______________ a loud bang. They all (jump)_______________ up, (run)_______________ to the edge of the boat and (look)_______________ over the side. To their terror they (see)_______________ that they (hit)_______________ some hard object which (tear)_______________ a hole in the side of the ship. Water (pour)_______________ into the steamship at an alarming speed. Fortunately another ship (arrive)_______________ half an hour later. The ship (sink)_______________ but the passengers and the crew (be)_______________ safe.


(D)    James (sit)_______________ outside the office for an hour already waiting for the interview. He (feel)_______________ so nervous that he (not/know)_______________ what to do with himself. The problem (be)_______________ that he (want)_______________ this job so much. It (mean)_______________ everything to him. He (think)_______________ about it such a lot before the day of the interview. He (imagine)_______________ himself behaving brilliantly at the interview but now he couldn’t remember all those things he (plan)_______________ to say. His arms (tremble)_______________, his forehead (sweat)_______________ and his mouth (feel)_______________ dry. At that moment, he almost (decide)______________ to get up and leave. But hardly he (rise)_______________ to his feet when the door of the office (open)_______________ and the woman who (go in)_______________ an hour earlier (come out)_____ looking very pleased with herself. She (smile)_______________ at James.


(E)     If it (not/be)_______________ by Louis, Joan never (survive)_______________ her trip to Paris last month. She (not/meet)_______________ him before but certainly (be)_______________ glad that they (become)_______________ friends by the end of her stay. The first thing that (happen)_______________ was that the hotel she (plan)_______________ to stay (not/receive)_______________ her booking, so they (have)_______________ no room for her. Then, as she (try)_______________ to get a taxi to take her to another hotel, someone on a motorbike (snatch)_______________ her bag with all her tickets and credit cards in it. As her French (be)_______________ quite rusty, she (not/know)_______________ how to explain what (happen)_______________. Nobody (be able)_______________ to help her until Louis (approach)_______________ her and (introduce)_______________ himself. 




 Future Simple

 Be going to

 Future Progressive

 Future Perfect

  • predictions, offers, promises, requests, suggestions

 e.g. Will you help me with the dinner?

 Shall I get you some coffee? 

  • intention

 e.g. She's going to take her driving test in a month.

  • action in progress at a certain moment in the future

 e.g. I'll be flying to Paris this time tomorrow.

  • action finished before a certain future time

 e.g. By the end of July he will have been in Athens for two months.

  • on-the-spot decisions

 e.g. Your clothes are dirty. – Are they? I'll wash them. 

  • planned actions

 e.g. I know my clothes are dirty. I'm going to wash them tomorrow.

  • logical assumption about the present

 e.g. It's midnight. He'll be probably sleeping now.

  • logical assumptions about the past

 e.g. It's midnight. She will have gone to sleep by now. 

  • opinions, hopes, fears, etc, with think, expect, suppose, hope, probably,

 e.g. I think he'll pass the exam.

  • when there is evidence that something will definitely happen

 e.g. She's going to have a baby.

  • planned actions (instead of Present Progressve)

 e.g. I'll be seeing Tom tomorrow.

 Future Perfect Progressive

  • duration of an action  up to a certain time in the future

 e.g. By next Sunday, they will have been painting the house for two weeks.

  • refusals, resistance or reluctance to do something

 e.g. The door won’t open. 


  • action seen as a result of something else in the future

 e.g. He doesn't know how to light a fire. He's going to burn himself.





 Present Progressive (Continuous)

 Present Simple

  • fixed plans and personal arrangements, especially social and travel arrangements

 e.g. He is arriving on the 6 o’clock train tomorrow morning. 

  • timetables, routines, schedules, fixed events which do not depend on the speaker’s plans or intentions

 e.g. What time does the bus arrive in London?


  • in complex sentences in the subordinate clauses of time and condition with actions referring to the future (after the conjunctions when, till, until, as soon as, before, after, while, by the time, as long as, the moment ,once, if, unless, in case, on condition that, even if, suppose, supposing, provided, providing)

 e.g. He will have a bath before he goes to bed.



Future Tenses.


Grammar Practice.


Exercise 3.1. Put the verbs in brackets into the proper tense forms, comment on the usage of tense forms.

1. This time next week Bill (lie)__________ on the beach. 7. I'm sorry I can't meet you tonight. I (go out)__________ with my parents.
2. What time the train (leave)__________? 8. Our teacher (give)__________ us a test tomorrow.
3. The sky is getting really dark and there (be)__________ a storm. 9. Don't phone them now. They (not/get)__________ home yet.
4. Is that the phone? – Don't worry. I (get)________ it. 10. Which one do you want? – I (take)__________ the blue silk one.
5. I think our team (probably win)__________. 11. By Christmas we (work)__________ together for ten years.
6. By the year 2020 more and more people (move)__________ to the cities. 12. Many people (come)__________ to the wedding? 



Exercise 3.2. Put the verbs in brackets into the proper tense forms.

1. Please stay in you seats until the bell (ring)_______________.

2. I (talk)_______________ to Sue about her decision to leave, but she (not listen)_______________. 

3. I've got a job in Stockholm so I (live)_______________ there for the next two years.

4. Have you heard the news? Harry (join)_______________ the Army.

5. Sorry to keep you waiting. I (not/be)_______________ long.

6. According to the weather forecast, it (snow)_______________ tomorrow.

7. Careful! You (knock)_______________ that jug off the table.

8. Look out! You (hit)_______________ that tree.

9. In fifty years' time, most people (probably ride)_______________ bicycles to work.

10. I (go)_______________ to Berlin at the end of the month.

11. Stop teasing the dog, or it (bite)_______________ you.

12. When I finally (go)_______________ into hospital, I (wait)_______________ for two months.

13. Where we (go)_______________ for our holidays? Any ideas?

14. Trevor and Laura (clean)_______________ the house tomorrow. They always do it on Saturday.

15. I think she (hear)_______________ all about it by the time I (see)_______________ her.

16. You (eat)_____________ when you (get)________________ here? If not, I (make)_______________ you something.

17. They (get back)_______________ probably at about half past eight.

18. By the time you (get)_______________ home I (clean)_______________ the flat from top to bottom.

19. We (leave)_______________ Amsterdam on Tuesday morning, but we (not/reach)_______________ Sydney until Thursday evening.

20. This government (be)_______________ in power for eight years soon but I don't think they (win)_______________ the next election.

21. I think they (finish)_______________ building the house by the time the winter (come)_______________ and then we (move)_______________ in the New Year.

22. The children (be)_______________ hungry when they (get in)_______________ because they (run)_______________ around all afternoon.

23. I am sure I (finish)_______________ this book by the weekend and then I (give)_______________ it to you.

24. I expect they (be)_______________ tired when you (see)________________ them because they (work)_______________ all day.



Exercise 3.3. Fill in with Present Simple or Future Simple.

1. I (accompany)_______________ you as soon as I (finish)_______________ my report.

2. The performance (be)_______________ a great success if he (play)_______________ the leading part.

3. If this time (be)_______________ convenient for you, we (meet)_______________ tomorrow.

4. We (not/complete)_______________ the work this week in case you (get)_______________ ill.

5. We (not/start)_______________ the game until he (arrive)_______________.

6. Provided he (leave)_______________ now, he (miss)_______________ the rush hour.

7. We (not/be able)_______________ to carry out the experiment unless he (help)_______________ us.

8. You may take my dictionary as long as you (give)_______________ it back on Friday.

9. As soon as he (return)_______________ from the beach, we (have)_______________ dinner.

10. Providing that he (work)_______________ hard, he (finish)_______________ his work on Thursday.

11. She has two keys in her bag in case she (lose)_______________ one.

12. As soon as the lake (get frozen)________________, she (go skating)_______________.

13. It may be many years before the situation (improve)_______________.

14. Unless you (look at)_______________ the picture at some distance, you (not/see)_________________ the details.

15. Providing that nothing (happen)________________, I (return)_______________ in two weeks.

16. If you (get)_______________ there before me, wait till I (come)_______________.

17. I don’t want to make an accusation until I (have)_______________ some proof.

18. We (interrupt)_______________ the program the moment we (hear)_______________ any further news.

19. He (remind)_______________ you of the promise in case you (forget)_______________.

20. Would you look after the children while I (do)_______________ the shopping?

21. I (take)_______________ the job unless the pay (be)_______________ too low.

22. Put that money somewhere safe before it (get)_______________ stolen.

23. I (buy)_______________ a chicken in case you mother (stay)_______________ for lunch.

24. He (come)_______________ on the 15th if there (be)_______________ no changes of plans.

25. I (stay)_______________ with the baby until he (stop)________________ crying.

26. What you (do)_______________ if the police (find)_______________ out about the accident?

27. There (be)_______________ a serious shortage of water unless we (get)_______________ rain soon.

28. We (support)_______________ them until they (find)_______________ work.

29. I (give)_______________ you some medicine before you (go)_______________ to bed.

30. I only (forgive)_______________ you after you (apologize)_______________.

31. If you (miss)_______________ your bus, I (take)________________ you home by car.  

32. As soon as Bob and Mary (get married)_______________, they (move)_______________ to California.

33. The burglar alarm (go)________________ off in case somebody (try)_______________ to break in.

34. I (do)_______________ my homework as soon this programme (finish)_______________.

35. I don't think life (be)_______________ worth living if there (be)_______________ a third world war.

36. Please let me watch the film. I promise I (do)_______________ my homework after it (end)_______________.

37. When the boss (arrive)_______________, we (ask)_______________ him his opinion. We (not/take)_____________ any decision until he (arrive)_______________.

38. They (give)_______________ us the money on one condition that we (pay)_______________ it back within six months.

39. She (take)_______________ a pack of cards in case she (meet)_______________ some people who play bridge.

40. If you (not/send)__________ this parcel before December, it (not get)__________ there for Christmas.



Exercise 3.4. Fill in with Present Simple or Future Simple paying attention to the meaning of when and if.

1. We (go)__________ swimming if it (be)__________ a nice day tomorrow.

2. I wonder if it (rain)__________ tomorrow.

3. You (get)__________ wet if you (not take)__________ an umbrella.

4. I don't know when he (come)__________ back.

5. I doubt if he (join)__________ us. He is very busy.

6. I (be)__________ grateful to you if you (lend)__________ me this sum of money.

7. I am not sure if he (follow)__________ my advice.

8. I definitely (come)__________ even if it (snow)__________.

9. I wonder if I (solve)__________ this problem without anybody's help.

10. He supposes that they (buy)__________ the house if it (be)__________ in good condition.

11. I am sure that when he (come)__________ he (apologize)__________ for his rudeness.

12. I wonder if you (invite)__________ the Browns if they (be)__________ here on Friday?

13. It's hard to say if she (find out)__________ everything.

14. I don't know when she (go)__________ to see them.

15. We (discuss)__________ the terms of the contract when he (come)__________.

16. I (not/deal)__________ with him if he (be)__________ so stubborn.

17. There (come)__________ a day when we (meet)__________ again.

18. I'm not sure whether he (be able)__________ to continue the job.

19. I don't know if I (be)__________ there when you (phone)__________ tomorrow morning.

20. I (wonder)__________ when I (get)_______________ my typewriter back. 


Exercise 3.5. Fill in the correct present or future forms.


(A)    When you (take)_______________ a holiday with Activity Wales, you (have)_______________ the time of your life. As soon as you (arrive)_______________, you (feel)_______________ as if you (be)_______________ in a different world. While you (stay)_______________ with us, we (do)_______________ our best to ensure that your holiday (run)_______________ smoothly and you (not/get) bored. Activity Wales (have)_______________ something to offer for all ages and tastes. If you (want)_______________ to play golf, sail or fish, our staff (be)_______________ happy to make the necessary arrangements, or if you simply (want)_______________ to relax and enjoy the breathtaking scenery we (be)_______________ delighted to organize some guided walks. Before your holidays (be)_______________ over, you already (plan)_______________ your next visit.


(B)     If you (want)_______________ to travel long distances on your bike, you must learn to mend a puncture. As soon as your tyre (become)_______________ flat, get off the bike or you (damage)_______________ the wheel. Then turn the bike upside down. Once it (be)______________ in position, remove the tyre using tyre-levels or, if you (have)_______________ nothing else, use spoons. When the tyre (be)_______________ off, pump up the inner-tube. Put it in some water and turn it until you (see)_______________ bubbles coming from it. This is the puncture. Before you (apply)_______________ the patch you must clean and dry the area around the hole. After you (do)_______________ this you (put)_______________ glue around the hole and wait until it (dry)_______________ a little. Then select a suitably sized patch. Stick the patch over the hole and don’t forget to put some chalk over it. Unless you (do)_______________ this, the inner-tube (stick)________________ to the inside of the tyre. Replace the tube, pump up the tyre and ride away. I don’t know if you (remember)_______________ all this, but it’s worth trying because you never know when it (be)_______________ useful to you.   


(C)     Welcome to NutfieldValley Health Farm! After you (settle in)_______________, a member of staff (come)_______________ and (interview)_______________ you about your specific dietary requirements. Once you (reach)_____ your target weight, you (start)_______________ a maintenance diet to make sure you stay slim. Before you (begin)_______________ the fitness programme, the resident doctor (check)_______________ your heart-rate and blood pressure. There is also a fully-equipped medical room in case you (have)_______________ any problems – though we don’t expect you ever (do)_______________. At NutfieldValley you pay only on condition that you (lose)_______________ at least 5% of your body weight in two weeks. If not, we (give)_______________ you a refund. By the time you (leave)_______________, you (feel)_______________ like a new person. Of course, we doubt that you (have)_______________ any complaints, but our helpful staff are always on hand in case there (be)_______________ anything you need. Remember, our motto is: “As long as you (be)_______________ happy, we (be)_______________ happy too!”



Future Tenses.


Conversational Grammar.


Exercise 3.6. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.

1. – You (go)_______________ to the meeting tonight? If so, I (give)_______________ you a lift there. – Oh yes please, that would be helpful. I (play)_______________ tennis until 7 o'clock but I (be)_______________ back shortly after that.

2. – I (pick)_______________ you up at about 7.30. You (be)_______________ ready by then? – Yes. Don't worry. I (wait)_______________ for you when you (get)_______________ there.

3. – Well, I first came here last June. – So by the end of May you (work)_______________ with us for almost a year.

4. – You look gorgeous in this dress. – Really? I (buy)_______________ it then.

5. – Why don’t we go to the cinema? – It’s too late. The film (start)_______________ by now.

6. – Do you ever think about what you (do)_______________ in ten years' time? – Oh yes. I sometimes imagine that I (do)_______________ a very important job and (earn)_______________ lots of money and that I (live)__________ in a beautiful big house. But to be honest, I think I still (work)_______________ here and I probably (do)________________ the same job.

7. – So I (wait)_______________ for you when you (get)_______________ to the stations. I (not come)_______________ onto the platform but I (see)_______________ you by the ticket office. – O. K., that's fine. I (carry)_______________ a heavy suitcase so I think we (have to)_______________ get a taxi from the station.

8. – You (do)_______________ anything special tonight? – Yes, I (go)__________ to the station to meet my friend Richard. He (stay)_______________ here for a week, remember. His train (get)_______________ in at eight fifteen.

9. – Hello, Claire. Sarah tells me you (go)_______________ to New York. And when you (leave)_______________? – Yes, I (spend)_______________ a couple of days there next week. My flight (leave)_______________ on Tuesday morning.

10. – Can you post this letter for me on you way to work? – I'm sorry but I (not walk)_______________ past the post box this morning because Emma (give)__________ me a lift to work. I (post)_______________ it for you later on though.



Exercise 3.7. Match the sentences to make short exchanges. 

 1. Look at all those dark clouds.
 2. Mum, I've dropped my glass of milk.
 3. The meeting is held on Tuesday at 3pm.
 4. What time did she say she's going to get there?
 5. I told her to tidy up the room but she won't.
 6. How much longer are you going to stay there?
 7. I feel awful. I think I'm going to faint.
 8. I'll come and help you clear the attic in a moment.
 9. Tessa seems to gain a lot of weight.
 10. Will you please shut the door?
 11. What shall I get for dinner?
 12. When am I going to see you again?
 13. What do you think you'll do when you finish school?
 14. Shall we go now? I've had enough.
 15. I'm just going to the post office.


 a) Shall I have a word with her?

 b) I'll be with you in just a minute.

 c) That's easy. I'm going to get a job that earns me lots of money.

 d) Thanks, that will be very helpful.

 e) Actually, she's going to have a baby.

 f) Never mind. Accidents will happen.

 g) I'm not sure I'll be able to come.

 h) She's probably be here by 9.30.

 i) I'll call the doctor right away.

 j) Let's just have fish and chips.

 k) Perhaps I'll see you tomorrow.

 l) No, I won't. Do it yourself.

 m) Are you? I'll come with you.

 n) OK. I'll just get your coat.

 o) Yes, there's going to be a storm. 



Exercise 3.8. Read the conversations. Complete it with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. 

(A)    – Have you decided what you (do)_______________ this weekend?

– Yes, we (have)_______________ a quiet day on Saturday and then on Sunday we (take)_______________ a bus up into the mountains and do some walking. And we probably (book)_______________ into a hotel for the night. And what about you? You (do)_______________ lots of work as usual?

– Well, no. Mark phoned last night about coming down this weekend. He (come)_______________ on Friday.

– Oh, I'd like to see him. I think I (phone)_______________ him up tonight and arrange something.

– We (plan)_______________ to spend the day on the beach on Saturday. We (do)_______________ some swimming and sunbathing. I just hope the weather (be)_______________ warm enough. And then on Saturday night we (see)_______________ that new film with Tom Cruise.

– Well, as I've got nothing planned, I (join)_______________ you at the beach on Sunday then, if that's O.K.

– Of course it is. I (pick)_______________ you up from your flat some time after breakfast.

– Oh thanks. I (bring)_______________ a picnic?

– Yes. Why not? I tell you what: Mark and I (make)_______________ some sandwiches and you (bring)_______________ some salad and fruit?

– Yes, fine. I (do)_______________ that. Good. That (save)_______________ us all the cost of eating out. And what about the film? What time you (see)_______________ that?

– We (see)_______________ the early showing at 6.00 and then we (try out)_______________ that new disco in town.

– Right. Well, I think I (spend)_______________ the evening at home with Sarah.

– O.K. so I (see)________________ you on Saturday morning, probably at around 10 o'clock.


(B)  – Did I tell you I've got a meeting in Glasgow at nine o'clock tomorrow morning? I  (drive)________________ up there overnight.

– Are you (drive)_______________ all through the night? You're crazy. You (be)_______________ exhausted before you (arrive)_______________. Why don't you take a train?

– I'll be OK. I (need)_______________ a car while I (be)_______________ there I have to visit some companies in the area. I can sleep when I (get)_______________ home.

– If you (take) a train, it (be)_______________ much more comfortable. If you (need)_______________ a car, you can hire one when you (get)_______________ to Glasgow.

– If I (hire)_______________ a car, it (be)__________ too complicated. I'd rather take my own.

– It's too dangerous. You might fall asleep on the motorway.

– I (not fall)_______________ asleep. I can play loud music. Anyway, I (get)_______________ there much quicker when there (be)_______________ no traffic on the road. As soon as I (arrive)_______________, I (ring)_______________ you up, I promise.

– I (be)_______________ worried until I (hear)_______________ from you. But don't ring before I (be)_______________ awake in the morning.

– I (lie)_______________ down for a couple of hours before I (go)_______________.

– Good idea. You (be)_______________ exhausted tomorrow if you (not/get)_______________ some sleep this evening.


(C)   – O .K., Linda and Tom, let’s talk about your future accomplishments. You two are amazing! By the time you (get)_______________ married, you already (plan)_______________ your whole life together!

– Well, we (go)_______________ out together since school. By the time we (graduate)_______________ from university, we (think)_______________ about our marriage for a long time.

– When your first child (be)_______________ born, Tom (not/graduate)_______________ from university. I wonder how you (manage)_______________ with Tom still studying.

– It (not/be)_______________ easy but we’ve got a plan. Tom (finish)_______________ most of his courses by then. He (stay)_______________ with the baby during the day and (go)_______________ to evening classes.

– By the time you (celebrate)_______________ your tenth wedding anniversary, you (not/start)_______________ your business. You have a lot of patience.

– Not really. I (get)_______________ years of practice in my job by then. When I (open)_______________ the doors of Linda Ltd, I (become)_______________ a very experienced web page designer.

– Well, good luck to you and thanks for the interview.



Future Tenses.




Exercise 3.9. Insert the proper tenses. 

(A)     Next Saturday, Daisy (fly)_______________ to Paris for a business meeting. Her secretary already (book)_______________ the flight. The plane (leave)_______________ at nine o'clock in the morning and one of her business clients (meet)_______________ her at the airport when the plane (land). She (not/know)_______________ how long the meeting (last)_______________, but she (return)________________ home by Thursday evening.


(B)     Flora (become)_______________ a doctor when she (finish)_______________ school. She thinks she probably (work)_______________ in a hospital for most of her career. This time next month, she (revise)_______________ for her exams. By the time she (get)_______________ her degree she (study)_______________ medicine for five years. Flora (hope)_______________ she (pass)________________ all the exams with excellent grades.


(C)     I (leave)_______________ the hotel early in case there (be)_______________ a lot of traffic. I don't know how long the journey (take)_______________ or what time the plane (land)________________, but I (call)_______________ you as soon as I (arrive)_______________ at the airport. Then, I (wait)_______________ for you when you (come)_______________ to collect me.


(D)     It's five o'clock in the afternoon. Paula (drink)_______________ tea as she (wait)_______________ for Charles. She (wonder)_______________ if he (be)_______________ late as usual. She (wait)_______________ until the clock (strike)_______________ five and then she (call)________________ him in case he (forget)_____.


(E)      Next month, Maggie (go)_______________ to Australia to visit her sister, who she (not/see) for fifteen years. The plane _______________ (leave) early in the morning and (stop)_______________ off at Singapore before flying on to Sydney. It (be)________________ a very long, tiring journey, but Maggie is very excited because this time next month, she (begin)_______________ her adventure on the other side of the world. She (stay)________________ in Australia for one month. She already (book)_______________ her flight, so she (fly)________________ back to Britain on 31st May. She hopes that she (visit)_______________ lots of fascinating places and (see)_______________ many interesting things by the time her holidays (be)_______________ over.


(F)      By August, I (be)________________ a secretary for ten years. And I (earn)________________ the same salary for almost three years. That’s why I (make)________________ a New Year’s resolution to go back to college this year. I (write)________________ for college magazines and start saving for tuition. By March, I (work)_______________ out how much tuition (cost)________________. Then I (start)________________ applying. By summer, I (receive)_______________ acceptance letters. In August, I (talk)_______________ to my boss about working part-time and going to college part-time. By that time, I already (save)________________ enough to pay for a term’s tuition. By next New Year’s Day, I (study)________________ for a whole term.


(G)     You ever (wonder)_______________ what exactly you (do)_______________ in ten years time? Well according to computer expert Tom Vincent, computers soon (be able)_______________ to make accurate predictions about the future. Professor Vincent from Cambridge (hold)_______________ a press conference next week to describe the computer which he (call)_______________ ‘Computafuture’. “This computer can tell us what life (be)_______________ like, based on data describing past events,” explains Professor Vincent. “For example, Computafuture can predict how many people (live)_______________ in a particular area, or whether there (be)_______________ a lot of rain in a particular period.” Professor Vincent also believes that by the year 2050, computers (replace)_______________ teachers, and also (do)_______________ most of the jobs now done by the police. “Computers (become)_______________ more intelligent all the time,” says Professor Vincent. “Soon they (direct)_______________ traffic and (teach)_______________ our children as well as (tell)_______________ us about the future.” 




 Direct Speech

 Reported Speech


 "The plane will be late," they said.


 They said (that) the plane would be late.


 "Why are you late?" she asked.

 "Are you feeling well?" he asked me.

 Wh-clauses or If-clauses (if there is no question words)

 She asked why I was late.

 He asked me if I was feeling well.


 "Don't touch it!" he said.

 "Turn on the lights, please," he said.


 He told not to touch it.

 He asked me to turn on the light.




Verb Tenses Changes. 

 Direct Speech

 Reported Speech

 Simple Present

 "I go to work by car," he said.

 Simple Past

 He said that he went to work by car.

 Present Continuous

 "I am having a nice time," she said.

 Past Continuous

 She said that she was having a nice time.

 Present Perfect

 "I've booked my summer holidays," he said.

 Past Perfect

 He said that he had booked his summer holidays.

 Present Perfect Continuous

 "I've waiting for you all morning," he said.

 Past Perfect Continuous

 He said that he had been waiting for me all morning.

 Simple Past

 "I failed my driving test," he said.

 Past Perfect

 He said that he had failed his driving test.

 Future Simple

 "I'll tidy my room tomorrow," she said.


 She said that she would tidy her room the next day.

 Past Continuous

 "The car broke down when I was driving to work," he said.

 He said the car had broken when he was driving to work. (When the reported speech contains a time clause, the tenses remain unchanged.)



Word Changes. 

 Direct Speech

 Reported Speech



 Now that




 Tomorrow morning

 Last night

 The day before yesterday

 The day after tomorrow

 This week/ month/ year

 Last week/ month/ year/ Monday etc.

 Next week/ month/ year/ Monday etc.

 Two days/ years etc. ago

 In two days 

 That night

 Then, at that time, at once/ immediately


 That day

 The day before, the previous day

 The day after, the following day, the next day

 The morning after, the next morning

 The night before, the previous night

 Two days before

 In two days' time

 That week/ month/ year

 The previous week/ month/ year/ Monday etc.

 The following/ month/ year/ Monday etc.

Two days/ years etc. before

Two days later

 Direct Speech

 Reported Speech






 He said to me, "Come and look at this bird."

 She said to me, "Stand here and wait for me."

 That/ those/ the





 He told me to go and look at that bird.

 She told me to stand there and wait for her.




No Changes in the Verb Tenses in Reported Speech 


 Direct Speech

 Reported Speech

  • the sentence expresses a general truth or permanent state or condition 

 My mother said, "It gets dark earlier in the winter."

 My mother said that it gets dark earlier in the winter.

  • the introductory verb is in the Present,  Future or Present Perfect tense.

 She says/ will say/ has said, "I can cook well."

 She says/ will say/ has said that she can cook well.

  • the following verbs are used: had better, could, would, would rather, used to, needn't have, should, might, ought to.

 He said, "I would rather go out for dinner."

 He said that he would rather go out for dinner.

  • there is Past or Past Continuous in a clause of time

 She said, "When I was swimming, I got cramp."

 She said that when she was swimming, she got cramp.

  • the sentences expresses something which is believed to be true. In this case the verb tense can either change or remain unchanged. However, if the sentence expresses something which is not true, then the verb changes.

 He said, "Ethiopia is a third-world country." (true)

 He said, "Ethiopia is a highly developed country." (false)

 He said that Ethiopia is/ was a third-world country.

 He said that Ethiopia was a highly developed country.



Reported Statements. 

 Say is used in Indirect Speech. It is also used in Reported Speech when it is not followed by the person the words were spoken to.

 e.g. “She won’t come,” he said. – He said (that) she wouldn’t come.

 say something; say good morning/evening, etc; say one’s prayers; say a few words; say so; say no more; say for certain, say for sure; say little; say a poem; say something over and over again; to say nothing of; etc.

 Tell is used in Reported Speech when it is followed by the person the words were spoken to.

 e.g. “She won’t come,” he said to me. – He told me (that) she wouldn’t come.

 tell the truth; tell a lie; tell sb the time; tell sb one’s name; tell a story; tell sb a secret; tell sb the way; tell one from another; tell sb fortune; tell sb so; tell the difference; etc. 

 Ask is used in reported questions and commands or in indirect questions.

 e.g. He said to me, “Please leave.”

 He asked me to leave.

 He asked, “Have you got any money?” – He asked me if I had any money.

 ask a favour, ask sb the time; ask a question; ask the price



Grammar Practice.


Exercise 4.1. Fill in: say, tell or ask in the correct form.

1. Never _______________ me a lie again.  11. I wish she would stop _______________ favours. 
2. I can’t _______________ for sure, but I think she is divorced.  12. Mum promised to _______________ us a story before we go to bed. 
3. She _______________ me for a loan of $50.  13. The twins look alike. I can’t _______________ one from another. 
4. Don’t _______________ the secret to anybody else.  14. She _______________ me to meet her at the cinema at 8 o’clock. 
5. My neighbour always _______________ ‘hello’ whenever he sees me.  15. I remember her _______________ something, I just can’t remember exactly what.
6. Please _______________ me if I look OK in this dress.  16. I would like to _______________ a few words about this year’s competition. 
7. She _______________ the doctor how long she would have to stay in hospital.  17. To _______________ you the truth, this is the first time I’ve tasted sushi. 
8. He _______________ he had never seen such a boring film before.  18. She did _______________ me her name but I can’t remember it now. 
9. Can you _______________ me the way to the nearest bank?  19. I don’t feel like arguing so we’ll _______________ no more about the subject. 
10. Don’t _______________ I didn’t __________ you they were coming.  20. I can’t  _______________ the difference between the two pictures.  



Exercise 4.2. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the proper tense forms.

1. Yesterday I (ask)_______________ my little son where his bicycle (be)_______________. I (be)_______________ shocked when he (tell)_______________ me that he (sell)_______________ it to his friend.

2. He warns me that I (not have)_______________ many chances to pass the exams if I (not work)_______________ hard.

3. Robert said that he (be)_______________ to Turkey twice but he (have)_______________ no time to visit Istanbul.

4. My cousin said that they (buy)_______________ a new flat but they (not/like)_______________ it so much as their last one.

5. She said that they (drive)_______________ for two hours before they (reach)_______________ a small village.

6. She said that she (have)_______________ no idea who (do)_______________ it but she (find)_______________ it out. 

7. My mother asked me if I (be)_______________ back in time for dinner. I replied that I (be)_______________ at home at about six o'clock if I (catch)_______________ the five o'clock train.

8. My teacher wanted to know how long I (study)_______________ English.

9. The policeman (come)_______________ up to the fellow and (ask)_______________ what the matter (be)_______________ and why they (argue)_______________.

10. His wife warned him that if he (make)_______________ a noise, he (wake)________________ up the child.

11. He complained that he (be)_______________ ill for a week and that nobody (visit)_______________ him so far.

12. He explained that when we (phone)_______________ him, he (sleep)_______________ and (not hear)_______________ the ring.

13. Everybody asks how long we (work)_______________ together.

14. The manager promised that he (speak)_______________ to me when he (have)_______________ time.

15. The thief said he (hit)_______________ me unless I (tell)_______________ him where the money (be)_______________.

16. She wonders if she (go)_______________ to college if she (get)_______________ good grades in her exams.

17. I was sure that the children (sleep)_______________ and (not hear)_______________ us.

18. He explained that he (whitewash)_______________ the ceiling by the time I (phone)____________________.

19. I (meet)_______________ Judy in the department store the other day. She (say)_______________ she (look for)_______________ a nice summer dress.

20. When I came to the station I (see)_______________ my cousin. I (understand)_______________ that she (miss)_______________ the 8 o'clock train.

21. My friend said that he (want)_______________ to see the new film as many good actors (star)_______________ in it. I knew that everybody (praise)_______________ the film and was sorry that I (not see)_______________ it. 

22. It (rain)_______________ hard yesterday evening. Mrs Parker (regret)_______________ she (not take)_______________ the umbrella.

23. My friend (call)_______________ on me yesterday. He (say)_______________ he (buy)_______________ two tickets for the match and (add)_______________ that he (stand)__________ in a queue for two hours.

24. The Prime Minister said yesterday that the country (do)_______________ well and things (get)_______________ better soon.

25. She wanted to know if the man (have)_______________ any information that (help)_______________ the police.



Exercise 4.3. Turn the following sentences into indirect speech.

1. “I have never been to Paris before,” said Paul.

2. “Are you going to San Francisco next summer?” his boss asked.

3. “If I see him tonight, I'll invite him to the party,” said Mary.

4. “I've written five letters this morning,” he said.

5. “I've been living here for five years,” she said.

6. “I was reading the children a story last night when the lights went out,” she said.

7. “I met Jack while I was working in London two years ago,” she said.

8. “I finally made up my mind last night to refuse your offer,” she told me.

9. “I'll take my new contract home tonight and study it,” he said.

10. “I saw a really bad accident last night,” she told me.

11. “Next time you’ll have to do better than that,” my boss said.

12. “I am seeing Terry tomorrow,” she said.

13. “We were watching television when we heard the news.” her father said.

14. “Mum is making an apple pie now,” Tom said.

15. “I learned to use chopsticks when I studied in Tokyo,” she explained.

16. “He is the most boring man I’ve ever met,” she confessed.

17. “Yesterday Ann and Paul were talking in front of a shop window about some clothes they wanted to buy,” she said.

18. “I am learning French as I am going on holiday to Paris next August”, he said.

19. “If anyone calls tell them I won’t be here until tomorrow,” she said to me.

20. “I have applied to several jobs this week,” he said to us.



Reported Questions and Indirect Questions. 

 Reported Questions.

 Indirect Questions.

 Reported Questions are used to report someone else’s questions, suggestions, offers or requests. In reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark becomes a full stop. To report a question we use:

 a) ask + question word for special questions;

 b) ask + if/whether for general or alternative questions

 e.g. He asked her, “What’s your name?” – He asked her what her name was.

 He asked her, “Do you like tea?” – He asked her if/whether she liked tea. 


 Indirect Questions are use to ask or infomation/advice. They are introduced with: Could you tell me...?; Do you (happen to) know ...?; I wonder...; I want to know...; I doubt ...; etc. and we use affirmative word order. Question words or whether can be followed by an infinitive in the indirect question if the subject of the question is the same as the speaker.

 e.g. He asked me, “Is it correct?” – He wondered if/whether it is/it was correct.

 H asked me, “Where can I leave it?” – He wanted to know where he could leave it/where to leave it.



Grammar Practice.


Exercise 4.4. Turn the questions in brackets into reported questions. 

Everyone has good stories, and collecting them is an interesting way for younger family members to stay close to older relatives and learn the family's culture. Recently, my son Mark interviewed his grandfather. Mark asked him _________________________ (Do you have some time to talk to me?). He found a quiet room to talk in and then asked his grandfather_________________________ (Do you feel comfortable here?). To get started, Mark talked about an event that the two of them had shared. He asked his father _________________________ (Do you remember our trip to the circus?). When the interview got under way, Mark wanted to know about the details of his grandfather's life as a child. He asked him _________________________ (What do you wear to school?) and _________________________ (What did your mother cook?). He also asked _________________________ (What hobbies did you have?). When Mark asked him _________________________ (What was your most important decisions?), he learned how his hobby, amateur radio, led to his job in communications. When he asked ______________________________ (What new invention do you like best?), he learned about his father's fascination with computers.



Exercise 4.5. Turn the following sentences into indirect questions. Use the prompts to ask indirect questions.

1. Where did I leave my glasses?  – I wonder __________________________.

2. What time do the banks close? – Have you got any idea _________________________?

3. When was the town founded? – Could you tell me __________________________?

4. What's the population of the town? – Do you know _________________________?

5. Where can I change some money? – I'd like to know _________________________.

6. What's the exchange rate today? – Do you happen to know _________________________?

7. Is there a dry cleaner's near here? – I wonder _________________________.

8. Where is there a cheap place to eat? – Have you any idea _________________________?

9. How long does it take to get to the centre of town from her? – Can you tell me _________________________?

10. Did it rain here yesterday? – Do you remember _________________________?

11. Is john planning to call a meeting? – Did you know _________________________?

12. When are you leaving? – I want to know ______________________________.

13. Did he tell the truth? – I doubt _________________________.

14. Who left the message on your answerphone? – She wondered _________________________.

15. How long has he been working here? – I want to know _________________________.

16. Will she be on time? – I doubt _________________________.

17. Has she told anyone about our engagement? – He wondered _________________________.

18. Where have you been? – He wanted to know _________________________.

19. Who left the door open last night? – Do you happen to know _________________________?

20. What time does the train leaves? – Could you tell me _________________________?



Exercise 4.6. Complete the sentences.

1. Where's the bank? – I'm afraid I don't know _________________________.

2. Could you tell me what __________________________? – It's nearly half past six.

3. Where have you put my glasses? – You are always forgetting _________________________.

4. What are you giving your children for Christmas? – We haven't decided _________________________ yet.

5. Did you post my letter? – I can't remember _________________________ or not.

6. Whose pen is this? – I've no idea _________________________.

7. Are you coming on the boat trip? – I'm not sure __________________________.

8. How much does Jack weigh? – I haven't a clue _________________________.

9. Where does David get all his money from? – No idea, but I'd love to know _________________________.

10. Have you any idea how much _________________________ on clothes? – I don't want to know how much I spend. I don't care.



Exercise 4.7. Complete the conversation by changing the direct questions in brackets to indirect questions.

– Do you know _________________________ (Is there anything good on TV?)

– There's World Cup soccer this evening. It's the final match.

– I don't understand _________________________ (Why do you enjoy watching sports all the time?)

– Well, I always wonder _________________________ (How can you watch those boring news specials?) Let's find out _________________________ (What's playing at the movies?)

– Let's see __________________________ (Can you agree on a movie?) Do you know _________________________ (Where's today's paper?)

– I think I saw it in the kitchen.

– I can never remember _________________________ (What section are the movies in?)

– They are right behind the sports pages.

– I don't know _________________________ (Will you enjoy this one?) It's called White Lies. It's a romantic comedy.

– I've heard of it. It's supposed to be good.

– I wonder _________________________ (Can we take the kids?)

– It doesn't say _________________________ (What's the rating?

– Why don't we just get a sitter and go ourselves?

– That's an excellent idea. Now all we have to do is to find out __________________________ (Is the sitter free tonight?) 





Grammar Practice.


Exercise 5.1. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the proper tense forms. 

(A)    It was already past midnight. Kate (sit)_______________ in the dining-car of the express train that (take)_______________ her back home to Bristol. She hardly (touch)________________ the meal in front of her. She (be)__________ worried and deep in thought. Only two days ago she (come)_______________ back to England from Mexico, where she (teach)_______________ English to businessmen.


(B)    I (feel)________________ tired when I (take)_________________ the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I (be)________________ to a party the evening before. We (not/go)________________ to bed until after one. I (not/be)________________ on the train long when I (have)________________ a terrible shock. I suddenly (realize)_________________ that I (leave)_______________ my wallet at home. Then I (begin)__________ to wonder. I (leave)_______________ it in the office the day before? I couldn't remember. I (feel)_______________ awful.


(C)    I was delighted when I (become)_______________ a doctor. I (work)_______________ at this hospital for six years now. Although there (be)_______________ bad times over the years, I (enjoy)_______________ my work at the moment. I still (feel)_______________ pleased every time one of my patients (recover)________________.


(D)    I (look)________________ for a car for two months. Then, one day as I (talk)________________ to my cousin, he (mention)________________ that one of his friends (want)_______________ to sell his car because he (need)_______________ money. He (have)_______________ the car for three years and it (be)_______________ in excellent condition. The best thing about it (be)_______________ that it only (cost)_______________ me $2,000.


(E)     Mary (prepare)_______________ everything for the dinner party hours before the guests (be supposed)_______________ to arrive. She (set)_______________ the table when suddenly she (remember)_______________ that she (forget)_______________ to give her address to one of the guests. She (look)_______________ for his phone number in diary for some time when she (realize)_______________ that she (made)_______________ a mistake. The dinner was to be the next day.


(F)     Last year I had a piece of good luck. I (work)_______________ in the bank as usual, when I (get)_______________ a phone call from the football pools company. They told me that I (win)_______________ a large amount of money on the football pools. A few weeks later I (decide)________________ to give up work and buy a house in the country. Since I (move)_______________ to the country I (learn)_______________ a lot about wild animals and flowers. In the last few months I (paint)________________ some quite good portraits of my neighbours, and next month I (have)_______________ an exhibition in a nearby town.


(G)    The police suspected that Brian (break)_______________ the window at his house because he (want)_______________ to make them think that a burglar (steal)_______________ his valuable stamp collection they (think)_______________ that Brian (do)_______________ this because he (need)_______________ the money. However, they (not/know)_______________ that Brian (fly)______________ to Brazil the week before, and (be)________________ abroad when the burglary (take place)________________.


(H)    Yesterday my three brothers and I (start)_______________ painting the downstairs rooms. Unfortunately while I (mix)_______________ the paint, one of my sisters (open)________________ the door. Nobody (tell)_______________ her that we (work)_______________ in the room, you see. So instead of painting the walls, we (spend)________________ all morning cleaning the paint off the floor. It is not all bad news, though. The school in the village (close)_______________ down two years ago, and my parents (not/find)________________ another school for us yet.


(I)      Mr. Boxell (work)_______________ hard that day, so he (decide)_______________ to shut his shoe shop earlier. But hardly he (shut)_______________ down the window screen when he (see)_______________ a gentleman in a well-cut suit coming through the door. The man (want)_______________ Mr. Boxell to show him a very expensive pair of black leather shoes. There was something about the way the gentleman (walk)_______________ that (make)_______________ Mr. Boxell suspicious. He (think)_______________ that he (see)_______________ the gentleman before and then suddenly it (strike)_______________ him where exactly.


(J)      The actress Vanessa Kemp (disappear)_______________. Yesterday she (fail)_______________ to arrive at the Prince Charles Theatre in London's West End for her leading role. Ms. Kemp, who (live)________________ in Hampstead, (leave)_______________ home at four o'clock yesterday afternoon for the theatre, a journey she (make)_______________ several times the week before. Two people who (walk)_______________ past her home at the time (see)_______________ her leave. But nobody (see)_______________ her ever since. At half past seven she still (not/arrive)_______________ at the theatre. At eight o'clock the theatre manager had to break the news to the audience, who (wait)_______________ patiently for the play to start. Since yesterday, theatre staff and friends (try)_______________ to contact Ms. Kemp, but they (have)_______________ no success so far. The police (take)_______________ the matter seriously, but they (believe)_______________ that she is unlikely to be in any danger.



Exercise 5.2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Жизнь людей значительно изменилась с тех пор, как холодильник, телевизор, телефон вошли в их быт.

2. В течение двух часов я ехал со скоростью более 100 км, и все же к тому времени, когда я добрался до дома, уже стемнело.

3. Я обещаю, что поговорю с ним, но я не знаю, придет ли он сегодня.

4. Боюсь, что к тому времени, как мы доберемся туда, все билеты будут проданы.

5. Не волнуйтесь, я присмотрю за вашим багажом, пока вы не вернетесь.

6. Я знал, что если я пошлю письмо сегодня, они получат его послезавтра. 

7. Я считал, что он не согласится на наше предложение, но, к счастью, я ошибся.

8. К субботе они отпечатают и отошлют все письма.

9. Суп хорошо пахнет, а на вкус он еще лучше.

10. Я понял, что момент, которого он ждал, наконец, наступил.

11. Это наименее удобное для меня время. Завтра в полдень я встречаюсь со своим адвокатом.

12. Если полиция получит эти сведения в ближайшем будущем, его поймают до того, как он продаст украденные драгоценности

13. Медленно, но верно человек завоевывает космос.

14. Хотя мне не хочется говорить о нем плохо в твоем присутствии, но последнее время он ведет себя очень глупо.

15. Она проснулась с ужасной головной болью и болью в горле и поняла, что вчера простудилась.

16. Так как Том не знает, как выглядит его тетя, она прислала ему свою фотографию, чтобы он узнал ее в аэропорту.

17. Он готовился к этому матчу 3 месяца, в последние две недели он тренируется по четыре часа в день и говорит, что чувствует себя уверенно.

18. Когда я ехал домой, я думал о том, что вы сказали.

19. Не звони мне между 5 и 6. Я буду готовить праздничный обед в это время.

20. Полицейский подошел к нам и спросил, что происходит, и почему мы спорим.

21. К тому времени как Джон добрался до дома, Мэри была в ярости, так как она прождала его почти два часа.

22. Том позавтракал и слушал по радио последние новости.

23. Солнце еще не встало, а туристы уже отправились на пятичасовую экскурсию к водопаду Виктория.

24. Мы уезжаем в семь. Но я уверен, что мы закончим собирать вещи к этому времени.

25. Снег шел уже неделю, когда мы приехали в город.

26. Я думаю, что к концу месяца накоплю достаточно денег, чтобы совершить двухнедельное путешествие в Лондон.

27. Когда они вернулись домой, Тед еще не лег спать и слушал музыку в своей комнате.

28. Он много работал, плохо спал, поэтому и выглядел усталым.

29. Не успела я войти в офис, как увидела Тома, который дружелюбно мне улыбнулся.

30. Он всегда оставляет дела  до последней минуты. Никто не знает, сделает ли он что-нибудь вовремя.

31. Я надеюсь, что рабочие покрасят дом до того, как мы вернемся домой.

32. Примите две таблетки за раз, и боль пройдет через два часа.

33. Мальчик ждет на остановке уже полчаса. Стоит ли мне сказать ему, что ближайший автобус прибудет только через час?

34. Ему придется покупать новые брюки, так как он порвал старые, когда убегал от собаки.

35. Я никогда не пользуюсь мобильным телефоном, когда веду машину.