^ Вверх



Entry Test.


Choose the proper item.

1. What _____ nice old furniture you’ve got!

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

2. Who put the first man into _____ space?

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

3. Open your books at _____ page 25, please.

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

4. There was _____ hard work to be done on the farm.

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

5. The girl has got _____ lovely hair.

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

6. _____ teachers need to have _____ enormous patience.

1) –, an    2) the, an    3) –, –    4)the, the

7. _____ Nelson’s column is in _____ Trafalgar Square.

1) the,  the    2) the –    3)  – , the    4) – ,  –

8. I don’t think I have ever seen _____ child who doesn’t like _____ ice-cream.

1) a, an    2) the,  –    3) a, the    4) a,  –  

9. We are going on _____ picnic with _____ Simpsons.

1) a, the    2) –, –    3) a,  –    4) the, the

10. At _____ Christmas my mother usually cooks _____ tasty lunch.

1) the, a    2) –, a    3) the, –    4) –,  –

11. Galileo developed _____ telescope for use in _____ astronomy.

1) the,  –    2) a, the    3) the, the    4) –,  –

12. If you want to make _____ fire you will need _____ wood.

1) –,  –    2) a, a    3) the, the    4) a, –

13. We shake _____ hands with _____ host.

1) –, a    2) –, the    3) the, the    4) the, a

14. I have _____ vague knowledge of _____ French history.

1) a, the    2) a, –    3) –, –    4) –, the

15. You can’t visit London without visiting _____ Buckingham Palace or _____Tower Bridge.

1) –, the    2) –, –    3) the, the    4) the, –

16. He is in _____ excellent condition for _____ man of his age.

1) –, a    2) an, a    3) the, a    4) the, the

17. _____ water was found at _____ depth of 30 feel underground.

1) the, a    2) –, a    3) –, the    4) the, the

18. _____ good secretaries are in _____ good demand.

1) the, a    2) –,  –    3) –, the    4) the, the

19. It is not easy to tell _____ difference between _____ two cars.

1) the, a    2) the,  –    3) –, the    4) the, the

20. _____ baker is someone who makes _____ bread.

1) the, a    2) a, –    3) –, the    4) a, the



1. The Article: General Notions


Exercise 1.1. Study the rule. 

 The indefinite article has the forms a and an.

  • The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound. The article is pronounced [ə], when stressed it is pronounced [æ].

 e.g. a man, a university, a one-way street


  • The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel or words beginning with a mute h. The article is pronounced [ən], when stressed it is pronounced [æn].

 e.g.  an apple, an honest man


 The definite has one graphic form the which is pronounced in two ways:

  • [ði] before a vowel sound; [ðə] before a consonant sound 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 1.2.  Insert the proper article a or an. 

1) _____  elephant 12) _____ uncle 23) _____ MP3 file
2) _____ university 13) _____ X-ray 24) _____ euro
3) _____ umbrella 14) _____ European athlete 25) _____ one-parent family
4) _____ Irish girl 15) _____ union 26) _____ heir
5) _____ UN declaration 16) _____ one-way street 27) _____ young Irish girl
6) _____ underpass 17) _____ CD 28) _____ eagle
7) _____ honest man 18) _____ MP’s speech 29) _____ historian
8) _____ SOS call   19) _____ unusual name 30) _____ interesting idea
9) _____ one-pound coin 20) _____ expensive car 31) _____ FM radio
10) _____ half-hour lesson 21) _____ unhappy child 32) _____ unique opportunity
11) _____ useful book 22) _____ early train 33) _____ obvious mistake



Exercise 1.3. Check that you know what each of the following abbreviations stands for and choose one for each sentence below. Add a or an as appropriate.


1. I’ve just bought __________ of the Beatles hits for my aunt.

2. I think I saw __________ hovering over our back garden last night.

3. There’s __________ lounge at most airports.

4. The house has two bathrooms upstairs plus __________ downstairs.

5. He was arrested after __________ investigation lasting several months.

6. Margaret Thatcher had been __________ for quite a long time before she became Prime Minister.

7. __________ spokesman is expected to make an announcement later today.

8. __________ tests your speaking, listening and writing skills.

9. He is __________ executive.

10. He is a very clever man. He has got __________ of 150.



2. The Use of Articles with Singular Countable Nouns (1)


Exercise 2.1.  Study the rule. 

 1. The indefinite article a/an is used with singular countable nouns.

 e.g. I’ve got a postcard from Susan.

 1. The definite article theis used in front of any noun whether it is a singular countable noun, an uncountable noun or a plural countable noun.

 e.g. She dropped the book.

 I remember the fun I had with them.

 The girls were not at home.


 2. A/anis used when you are talking about a person or a thing for the first time.

 e.g. After weeks of looking, we bought a house.


 2. Theis used with a noun when you are referring to someone or something that has been already mentioned.

 e.g. After weeks of looking we bought a house. The house was in a small village.


 3. A/an is used with a predicative noun when this noun denotes a profession or a characteristic.

 e.g. He is a doctor. He is a naughty child.

 3. The is used when we identify people by their jobs.

 e.g. Will you wait for the plumber? – No, I can’t, I have to go to the dentist.


 4. A/an is used to talk about an example of something when you assume that the listener/speaker doesn’t know what specific thing you mean

 e.g. A car drove past.

      A/an can mean «any example of something», it is often used in descriptions.

 e. g. A CD costs more than a cassette.

 A doctor is a person who helps people who are ill.


 4. The is used to talk about a specific example of something that you think is    known to both the speaker and the listener/reader. Though the object can be mentioned for the first time, the situational reference is clear enough for the speaker/reader.

 e.g. Why did the girl look so frightened?


 5. A/an is used with nouns denoting time, measure, weight, frequency, price and distance in the meaning of «one».

 e.g. The car makes 120 km an  hour.









Practice Activities.


Exercise 2.2. Comment on the use of the articles.

1. A doctor needs years of training. 8. You'll have to wait an hour or two. 
2. During our journey we came to a bridge. As we were crossing the bridge, we met an old man and spoke to him. 9. He's a really nice man. 
3. Who’s at the door? – It’s the postman. 10. How well can a cat see in the dark? 
4. What’s John doing these days? – He is working as a postman.  11. I wrote a long letter to Jenny this morning. 
5. This is a nice house. Does it have a garden?  12. Would you please go to the supermarket and get some butter? 
6. Why should a compact disc be so dear?   13. Can I use the bathroom? 
7. There isn’t a car in the street.  14. How much is the red coat? 



 Exercise 2.3. Insert the proper article.

1. I had to take _____ train and _____ bus. _____ train was half an hour late.

2. There is _____ man at _____ door. I think it’s _____ man from _____ garage.

3. For lunch I had _____ sandwich and _____ apple. ______ apple was sour and _____ sandwich was not good.

4. I watched _____ car as it came up our road. _____ car stopped outside our house and _____ man got out.  _____ man was carrying _____ case in his hand. With _____ case in his hand, he looked like _____ salesman.

5. I bought _____ house in Wales. _____ house was in _____ agricultural area.

6. This is _____ front room. _____ ceiling and the walls need decorating, but _____ floor is in good order. We’ll probably cover it with _____ carpet.

7. They are building _____ new supermarket in _____ centre of _____ town.

8. Where is your mother at _____ moment? – She is in _____ kitchen, I think.

9. Could you close _____ door, please?

10. I put _____ glass on _____ table.

11. It was _____ warm and sunny day, so we decided to sit in _____ garden.

12. _____ man called when you were out.

13. My uncle used to be _____ dentist before he retired.

14. If you see _____ black cat, you’ll have bad luck.

15. _____ doctor said that _____ patient was likely to recover.

16. I don’t believe … word you are saying.

17. It was _____ photo of _____ house with _____ woman at _____ front door.

18. Playing _____ game of backgammon is ______ good way to spend _____ evening.

19. _____ apple _____ day keeps _____ doctor away.

20. When _____ woman and _____ man are in love, they’ll have _____ good marriage.

21. If you were _____ cook, you’d have to work in _____ kitchen all day long.

22. Where is _____ bathroom, please? 

23. Can you drive _____ car? – No, I have never had _____ car.

24. We have got to _____ airport just in time to catch our flight.

25. Once we had _____ dog and _____ cat. _____ dog was always eating _____ cat’s dinner. In _____ end, we gave _____ cat to _____ friend of ours. 


Exercise 2.4. Write complete answers to these questions.

1. How much are these apples? – 90 p/ kilo 6. How often is the rubbish collected? – Twice/ week
2. How often do you take these pills? – Once/ day 7. How much does olive oil cost? – $2/ litre
3. What speed are we doing? – 100  km/ hour 8. How much does he earn? – $ 15,000/ year
4. How many miles a gallon do you do? – 45 miles/ gallon 9. How fast can you type? – 50 words/ minute.
5. How many people were there? –  About 1000. 10. How much butter do we need? – Half/ pound. 



Exercise 2.5. These sentences are about new novels. Complete each sentence by inserting the proper articles.

1. Home is about _____ American Indian tribe driven off their land by ______ mining company.

2. Black and White is about _____ artist who makes _____ complete mess of his life.

3. _____ novel Moments of Danger is about _____ US president who disappears for _____ hour.

4. Big Money is about _____ business executive who makes _____ expensive mistake.

5. House Party is _____ novel about _____ affair between _____ MP and his secretary.

6. _____ book Two Lives is about _____ BBC reporter who becomes _____ FBI agent.

7. Ice is _____ novel about _____ SAS man who gets lost on _____ expedition to the South Pole.

8. There and Back is about _____ eighty-year-old man who goes on _____ one-year world trip.

9. The Nanny Diaries is about _____ young woman who takes _____ position caring for ______ four-year-old son of ______ wealthy family.

10. Swapping Lives is ______ novel about ______ successful, single Londoner and ______ comfortable, Connecticut mother of two who were to walk in each other’s shoes for _____ month.  



3. The Usage of Articles with Nouns Modified by Attributes


Exercise 3.1. Study the rule. 

 1. A/an is used with a descriptive attribute to name or to describe something.

 e.g. I am reading an interesting book at the moment.


 1. The is used with a limiting 

 (specifying) attribute which indicates such a quality or characteristic of an object that makes it distinct from all other objects of the class.

 e.g. Shortly moving to the new house, he fell ill.


 2. Descriptive attributes can be expressed by:

  • the infinitive;

 e.g. I made an attempt to smile.

  • a prepositional phrase;

 e.g. The information was contained in an article on biology.

  • a relative clause.

 e.g. I chose a picture that reminded me of my native country.


 2. Limiting attributes can be expressed by:
  • the infinitive;

 e.g. He said that Jack was the man to do it.

  • a prepositional phrase (of or another preposition);

 e.g. The collar of his shirt was rather dirty.

  • a relative clause;

 e.g. He took the cigarette that Robert offered him.

  • an adjective in the superlative degree;

 e.g. She is the most experienced person in our group.

  • an ordinal numeral;

 e. g. That’s the fourth time you’ve made such a mistake.

  • an adjective (the only, the same, the last, the next, the left, the right, the wrong, the following, the main, the very, the central, the present, the former, the latter, the principal).

 e.g.  The question you ask me is the very question I am asking myself. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 3.2. Comment on the use of the articles with nouns modified by attributes.

1. The book I’ve recommended now costs more than three pounds. 6. He looked around and saw a fifteen-year-old boy coming towards him.
2. She was a woman of wonderful generosity. 7. At the door leading to the veranda Bart read the words «Doctor Smith».
3. He looked up and saw a man standing in front of him. 8. The second attempt proved more successful than the first.
4. He sent her a note saying he was coming back. 9. Japanese is certainly the most difficult language I have tried to learn.
5. I stood by the iron gate leading to the garage and for a moment couldn’t enter. 10. My chief is the right man in the right place.



Exercise 3.3. Insert the proper article.

1. He was ______ man of over seventy.

2. He didn’t look at ______ man he was speaking of.

3. Belle was ______ red-haired woman she saw in ______ street ______ first day she came to Atlanta.

4. Did I show you ______ letter I got from Peter this morning?

5. Has anyone seen ______ paper I left in _____ sitting room?

6. Agatha Christie was ______ writer who invented Hercules Poirot.

7. It’s not easy to learn _____ foreign language, which is very different from your own language.

8. It just seems to be _____ wrong way to do it.

9. He made _____ effort to collect himself.

10. What do you think of ______ man Jim brought to ______ house?

11. We needed ______ house to stay when we were in London.

12. He didn’t like ______ idea of staying with them for another day.

13. I haven’t _____ chance of getting this job anyhow.

14. He was on his feet as _____ curtain went down at _____ end of _____ second act.

15. He began to hum _____ song. It was _____ old popular song.

16. It was not _____ job he liked.

17. My friend is _____ man of culture and good reading.

18. He was writing _____ letter to his wife when _____ door swung open and _____ short man of thirty came in.

19. He gave _____ suspicious look to _____ box I carried.

20. _____ person is more likely to die in _____ car accident than _____ aircraft accident.



Exercise 3.4. Insert the proper article.

1. Mary is not at _____ office, I think she has gone home.

2. Is it _____ present Bill gave you for Christmas?

3. This is _____ only cinema in this area.

4. _____ waiter was _____ last person I suspected.

5. This is exactly _____ job I was looking for.

6. Do you have _____ reason for arriving late?

7. _____ end of _____ book was by far _____ best part.

8. Most people think that _____ good job is _____ important part of life.

9. I didn’t know _____ answer to _____ question so I left it out.

10. This sweater is cheap. I bought it in _____ shop near _____ railway station.

11. _____ cyclist was hit by _____ car.

12. Whose is _____ car outside?

13. _____ year and _____ half is enough to finish this job.

14. I was in _____ garden when _____ phone rang.

15. _____ shoplifter tried to steal some clothes. ______ camera videoed _____ thief.

16. Have your seen my shoes? - They are on ______ floor in _____ kitchen.

17. I think that is _____ awful thing to say and _____ silly thing to do.

18. _____ driver turned left. Suddenly ______ child ran into _____ road.  

19. _____ play we saw was _____ comedy.

20. She has got _____ very friendly face with _____ big smile.

21. He had _____ big moustache and _____ small beard.

22. I saw _____ fox this morning. I think it must be _____ same fox I saw last week.

23. I kept calling her by ______ wrong name and found myself in _____  very awkward situation.

24. It’s ______ nicest day we’ve had all the week.

25. To _____ little girl he was _____frightening figure, _____ person to be feared and avoided.

26. «______ man doesn’t know our language», he said and walked off to find _____ English doctor.

27. She looked in her bag for _____ envelope.

28. Mrs. Davis sent me ____ note asking if I could pay her _____ visit that evening.

29. She answered _____ soft tap on _____ door and _____ maid came in with _____ tray, which she set on ______ table.

30. ______ postman has just put ______ letter under _____ door.

31. _____ door of _____ garage is broken.

32. _____ student at _____ back of _____ class is reading _____ newspaper.

33. It is not good to smoke _____ cigarette before _____ meal.

34. _____ good pupil is never late for _____ lesson.

35. Mah Jong is _____ example of _____ very old board game. I had _____ uncle who had _____ old set from Singapore. He kept _____ set in ______ beautiful box in _____ living room. He used to open ______ box and tell me about _____ game. The pieces were made of bamboo and each had ______ Chinese character on it.



4. The Use of Articles with Singular Countable Nouns (2)


Exercise 4.1. Study the rule. 

  • A/an is used with a singularnoun to give a definition, for example answering the question «What is  …?»

 e.g. A seagull is a large white and grey bird. (All seagulls are …).

 We use the in academic and formal language to describe typical characteristics of the whole class.

 e.g. The seagull is a scavenging bird.


  • A/an is used with a singular noun which denotes an object regarded as an individual representative of a class rather that the whole class.

 Here are the main groups of things that we commonly refer to as a general class with the.

 a) animals and plants;

 compare: The rose is my father’s favourite flower. – A red rose is an English symbol plant.

 The red squirrel is steadily dying out. – A whale is a mammal, not a fish.

 b) musical instruments and dances;

 compare: I do regret not learning to play the guitar. – It has always been my dream to have a guitar. I watched them dancing the waltz across the floor. – It’s a Strauss waltz.

 c) scientific inventions (the only exceptions are television and e-mail);

 compare: It would be difficult to imagine our life without the telephone. – Is there a telephone over there?

 d) parts of the body;

 compare: The officer grabbed him by the arm. – He escaped with a broken arm.

 e) a type or a genre;

 compare: Agatha Christie is a master of the detective story. – A detective story helps to while away the time.

  f) With the noun «man» in the meaning of «mankind, humanity or the whole class of men» no article is used.

 e.g. His trust in man has been destroyed.

     With the noun «woman» in the meaning «the whole class of women» the definite article or no article is used.

 e.g. He had always been interested in that mysterious creature – the woman. 


  • The is used with a singular countable noun when you are referring to a transport system, form of entertainment, service or media. This includes the police, the fire brigade, the army, the bank, the post office, the doctor, the dentist, the butcher’s', the cinema, the theatre, etc.

 e.g. How long does it take on the train?

      No article is used with words denoting means of transport after the preposition by.

 e.g. I don’t often travel by bus.


  • The is used with nouns which refer to persons treated as unique in their own sphere.

 The is used with collective nouns denoting social classes or groups.

 e.g. the President, the government, the Pope. The public hasn’t been told the truth.


  • The is used with unique things like «the sun, the moon, etc»

 e.g. The sun is very hot today.

       A/an can be used when we mean a certain aspect or state of the unique object.

 e.g. A pearl-white moon smiles through the green trees. 



Exercise  4.2. Comment on the use of the article.

1. A bear is a wild animal. 11. Don’t forget, you are going to the doctor tomorrow.
2. She started to learn playing the piano at the age of five. 12. In such a small village, you wouldn’t expect to have a cinema.
3. The tiger can swim. 13. We went to the theatre last night and saw Flames. It’s a wonderful play.
4. The horse has been replaced by the tractor. 14. I hope to see you at the bank.
5. Have you got any idea who invented the fridge? 15. Luckily the fire brigade came soon and put down the fire.
6. A man and a woman sat opposite us but they didn’t talk. 16. In many countries, the head of state is called the president.
7. No man born of woman can live in such conditions. 17. The equator runs round the middle of the earth.
8. I’ve got this annoying tune on the brain. 18. That night there was an amazing sky, full of different colours.
9. The tragedy and the comedy appeared in Greece. 19. We have landed men on the moon.
10. Somewhere a radio softly played. 20. The sky was brilliant blue.



Exercise 4.3. Say what these objects are. Then make some similar sentences of your own.

              Model:  A doctor is a person who helps people who are ill. 

 1) accountant

 2) beaver

 3) broom

 4) chatterbox

 5) conservatory

 6) cougar

 7) court

 8) curtain

 9) drill

 10) hyena

 11) saw

 12) sponge

 13) teetotaler

 14) cabinet

 15) drawer





 wild animal

 piece of furniture

 a) of the cat family, also called a puma.

 b) you put across the window.

 c) who keeps and examines business accounts.

 d) like a wolf, with a laughing cry.

 e) for cutting wood.

 f) with glass walls and roof in which plants are protected from cold.

 g) for sweeping floors.

 h) with drawers used for storing things.

 i) with strong teeth with which it cuts trees.

 j) who talks too much.

 k) used for washing, cleaning.

 l) for making holes.

 m) where legal cases are held.

 n) who doesn’t drink alcohol drinks.

  • o) who writes a cheque 



Exercise  4.4. Insert the proper articles.

1. I’m afraid ______ violin is _____ instrument I never mastered.

2. Our lives are dominated by _____ television.

3. _____ dog makes ______ good pet.

4. _____ orange is _____ fruit, _____ watermelon is _____ berry.

5. Who invented _____ camera?

6. _____ man is mortal.

7. _____ computer has already changed our life dramatically.

8. «_____ man is helpless in this case», he said shrugging his shoulders.

9. And clapping me in _____ friendliest way on _____ shoulder he went away.

10. _____ woman rarely loses heart in _____ face of financial or other problems.

11. _____ train would be better than _____ bus, it leaves every hour.

12. I need some stamps, where can I find _____ post office?

13. I walked to _____ tube instead going on _____ taxi.

14. My fear of _____ dentist’s started when I was _____ child.

15. Since they built _____ bridge no one uses _____ ferry any more.

16. My sons are both in _____ army.

17. This town is boring, what we need is _____ cinema.

18. Can you get _____ loaf of bread from _____ baker’s?

19. I wonder why people go to _____ opera?

20. He got himself back to London the quickest way, by train _____ and _____ plane.

21. Every solar system has _____ sun.

22. When _____ moon passes between _____ sun and _____ earth, it is called _____ eclipse.

23. We don’t know how old _____ universe is.

24. He was looking through _____ window scanning _____ horizon.

25. _____ Prime Minister is expected to visit France at _____ end of _____ month.

26. That night _____ sky was overcast and _____ moon couldn’t be seen. Mike took along _____ pocket flashlight to light their way.

27. Now _____ sun came clear of _____ bank of clouds and flooded _____ world with light.

28. She was wearing _____ old coat and when _____ sharp wind sprung up, she was cold.

29. Far away to _____ south-east _____ dazzling white sun climbed above _____ cloudless horizon.

30. _____ full moon sailing across _____ unclouded sky made _____ pathway on _____ broad sea. 


Exercise 4.5. Insert the proper articles.

1. Rutherford split _____ atom in 1911.

2. She felt _____ sharp pain in _____ neck.

3. _____ bird was shot in _____ wing.

4. Not _____ word was spoken, nor _____ sound was made during their long journey.

5. Though _____ earth was cold and wet, _____ sky was clear and _____ sun rose bright and beautiful.

6. _____ compass was invented in ancient China.

7. Danny looked up at _____ house and suddenly saw _____ face in _____ window of _____ dining room.

8. You know I don’t care for _____ drama, I prefer _____ comedy.

9. I just wanted to look at _____ place and ask you _____ question or two.

10. _____ drowning man catches at _____ straw.

11. _____ woman will only be equal to _____ man when she earns her living in _____ same way.

12. _____ cat is _____ extremely self-willed animal doing only what it actually wants.

13. _____ computer allows us to deal with a lot of data very quickly.

14. We knew who _____ murderer was at _____ end of _____ first act.

15. She took me by _____ hand and led to _____ house.

16. _____ cow gives us _____ milk.

17. Both _____ tiger and _____ leopard are cats.

18. _____ boy gave _____ loud shout which was heard across _____ river.

19. He was wearing _____ coat which was too big for him.

20. He hurt _____ leg in _____ accident.

21. _____ man we want has _____ red scar on _____ face.

22. _____ courageous man doesn’t fear _____ danger.

23. They say that _____ pen is mightier than _____ sword.

24. For centuries little was known about _____ American lobster.

25. _____ post office is _____ place where you can buy stamps.

26. William crashed _____ car into _____ lamp post.

27. He was _____ only survivor of _____ crash.

28. What’s _____ largest of all creatures? – _____ whale.

29. _____ organ that pumps blood around our bodies is called _____ heart.

30. _____ bridge is _____ structure that is built over _____ river, railway, road.

31. _____ mango is sweeter than _____ apple.

32. He had hardly spoken _____ word since we left _____ house.

33. I have _____ wonderful clock, which is 100 years old.

34. _____ wedding looked sad. _____ bride was too old and _____ bridegroom was too young.

35. I had _____ idea that she had _____ weight problem.

36. Have you got _____ book that would tell me what to do?

37. Then I saw _____ car parked by _____ side of _____ road. _____ driver was asleep.

38. He is _____ cousin on my father’s side.

39. I wish _____ mobile phone had never been invented!

40. Once upon a time, there was _____ cat and _____ dog who lived in _____ small house. One day _____ cat said to _____ dog, «This place is too small for us – we need _____ bigger house». _____ dog agreed. «We could even have _____ garden where I could bury my bones». «Well, I’m not sure _____ garden is _____ good idea», said _____ cat. «Who would cut _____ grass?» «We could employ _____ cat to do it», said _____ dog. «Why not _____ dog?» said _____ cat. And so they never left _____  small house because they couldn’t agree.



5.  The Use of Articles with the Words «School, Hospital, etc»  


Exercise 5.1. Study the rule. 

  • No article is used in front of nouns like bed, church, class, school, college, university, hospital, space, prison (jail), sea, town, deck, court, work when they denote activities associated with these places.

 e.g. Jane’s gone to school.

 She wouldn’t take any medicine and consequently ended up in hospital.

 Most people would rather be in school or in church than in prison.


  • The or a/an is used with these nouns when they denote a building or an object.

 e.g. Jane’s gone to the school for a meeting.


  • The or a/an is used with these nouns if they are modified by a descriptive attribute.

 e.g. He spent five years in a German prison.  The local school is soon to be closed down. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 5.2. Comment on the use of the articles.

1. We’ve arranged meeting outside the school. 6. They headed west toward the open sea.
2. Norton High is a very good school.   7. She can’t pay her taxes so she’ll appear in court tomorrow.
3. Susan’s at school at the moment. 8. We're going into town tonight to see a film.
4. I used to work as a cleaner at a hospital. 9. Frogville is a small town of around 4000 people.
5. My company is repairing the prison. 10. After finishing high school he’s planning to go to university. 



Exercise 5.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. We took some photos outside _____ church.

2. Have you ever worked in _____ factory?

3. When do you hope to go to _____ university?

4. How long will she be in _____ hospital?

5. _____ school is over at half past three.

6. There is _____ strike at _____ hospital.

7. You won’t find any men in _____ village now, they are all at _____ sea.

8. My wife’s firm has _____ office in Edinburgh.

9. Our children go to _____ new school.

10. Do you know who was _____ first woman in _____ space?

11. There was _____ fire in _____ jail last night.

12. Are you religious? Do you go to _____ church?

13. _____ captain was _____ only man on _____ deck at that time of night.

14. Starting _____ new school can be quite frightening.

15. My mother is _____ teacher at _____ local school.

16. In _____ high school, he also learned to play _____ drums, _____ piano and _____ cornet.

17. She threatened to take _____ magazine to _____ court if they didn't publish _____ immediate apology.

18. Lucy works as _____ nurse at _____ local hospital.

19. I managed to find _____ seat on _____ upper deck.

20. Do you believe in creatures from _____ outer space?

21. _____ leader of _____ gang went to _____ prison.

22. I was in _____ hospital for eight weeks after _____ accident.

23. _____ dangerous criminal escaped from _____ maximum-security prison.

24. Helen was sent to _____ prison for attacking _____ man with _____ knife.

25. Some people may be against _____ separation of _____ church and _____ state that _____ Constitution requires.





Exercise 1. Insert the proper article a or an.

1. _____ honest explanation 8. _____  A2 level in history 15. _____ unique achievement
2. _____ SOS call 9. _____  MA degree 16. _____ European country
3. _____ one-dollar banknote 10. _____  useful player 17. _____ SAS operation
4. _____ euro 11. _____  eighty-year-old man 18. _____ ATM machine
5. _____ obvious mistake 12. _____  envelope 19. _____ unusual fruit
6. _____ heiress 13.  _____ Indo-European language 20. _____ enquiry office
7. _____ uniform 14. _____ FBI agent  



Exercise 2. Choose the best alternative.

1. It’s _____ top secret, so don’t tell _____ soul, even your parents.

1) a, the    2) a, a    3) the, –    4) the, a

2. She pulled him by _____ sleeve.

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

3. It has always been my dream to have _____ flute.

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

4. Excuse me! Where is _____ enquiry office?

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

5. Once I had _____ dog called Spot.

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

6. Her brother has been to _____ prison twice.

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

7. I’m going to _____ school today to talk to Kim’s teacher.

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

8. India is _____ land of cotton, tea and rice.

1) a    2) an    3) –    4) the

9. There was _____ accident that held up all _____ traffic.

1) the, the    2) an, the    3) the, –    4) an, –

10. They took their landlady to _____ court for breaking _____ contract.

1) –, a    2) the, the    3) – , the    4) a, the

11. _____ oldest man in _____ outer space was John Glenn.

1) the, the    2) the, an    3) an, the    4) the, – 

12. I learnt to play _____ cello when I was at _____ school.

1) the, a    2) a, –    3) the, –    4) the, the

13. _____ letter was in _____ sealed envelope, it was obvious that nobody had read it.

1) a, a    2) the, the    3) the, a    4) a, the

14. There is _____ concert of choir music at _____ university tonight.

1) the, the    2) the, –    3) a, –    4) a, the

15. _____ television is _____ powerful medium.

1) the, a    2) –, a    3) – , –    4) a, a

16. They say that _____ dog is _____ man’s best friend.

1) the, a    2) the, –    3) a, –    4) a, a

17. _____ fire brigade was called to _____ prison to put out _____ fire.

1) the, –, the    2) the, the, the    3) a, –, a    4) the, the, a

18. During _____ storm _____ captain must be on _____ deck.

1) a, the, –    2) the, the, the    3) a, a, –    4) the, the, –

19. _____ tall man was sitting in front of me so I couldn’t see _____ screen.

1) a, the    2) the, the    3) a, a    4) the, a

20. I hate to hear _____ child crying or _____ dog barking.

1) the, a    2) –, a    3) the, the    4) a, a

21. _____ girl stepped forward trying not to miss _____ word.

1) the, the    2) the, a    3) a, a    4) a, the

22. There was _____ dog looking lost outside _____ butcher’s.

1) the, a    2) a, a    3) a, the    4) the, the

23. _____ most people take up _____ hobby as _____ way of relaxing.

1) –, a, a    2) –,  – , a    3) the, a, the    4) the, –, the

24. He grabbed her by _____ collar and dragged out of _____ room.

1) – , the    2) the, the    3) a, a    4) a, the

25. Mrs. Brown has just had _____ operation; she is still in _____ hospital.

1) the, the    2) an, the    3) the, –    4) an, –



Exercise 3. Insert articles where necessary. 

It’s true story. Man decided to rob bank in town where he lived. He walked into bank and handed note to one of cashiers. Cashier read note, which told her to give man some money. Afraid that he might have gun, she did as she was told. Man then walked out of building, leaving note behind. However, he had no time to spend money because he was arrested same day. He had made mistake. He had written note on back of envelope. And on other side of envelope was his address and name. This clue was quite enough for detective on case.



6.  The Use of Articles with Names of Diseases


Exercise 6.1. Study the rule. 

  • Names of the diseases usually take no article though some of them may be used with the definite article (the) flu(e), (the) measles, (the)  mumps, (the) chickenpox, scarlet fever, bronchitis, diabetes, cholera, cancer, malaria, appendicitis, hepatitis, leukemia, pneumonia, rheumatism, etc.

 e.g. Some people always wait for a holiday to come down with flu.


  • No article is used in the following expressions heart trouble, liver trouble, high blood pressure, hormone problem.


  • A is used in the following expressions

  a headache; a toothache; a stomachache; a backache; an earache; a pain in the back, in the knee, etc; a cold; a cough; a heart attack; a sore throat; a fever


  • The is used with names of diseases when the speaker refers to some particular cases.

 e.g. After the flu she felt depressed



Practice Activities.


Exercise 6.2. Comment on the use of the articles with names of diseases.

1. I’m going to bed, I’ve got a headache. 5. Rachel had a sore throat and runny nose all day yesterday.
2. The children are in bed with mumps. 6. I think Sam’s got flu.
3. Jane has a high temperature. I’m sure she has got a cold. 7. She had a persistent cough and stayed off work.
4. He suffers from back trouble. 8. Aspirin should help reduce the fever.



Exercise 6.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. Mind you don’t catch _____ cold.

2. Do you suffer from _____ malaria?

3. What is the best treatment for _____ flu?

4. What are the first symptoms of _____ chickenpox?

5. I’m sure it isn’t _____ scarlet fever: there is no redness of _____ skin.

6. Aspirin could help reduce _____ fever.

7. Don’t come near me. I’ve got _____ sore throat.

8. It looked precisely _____ place to provoke rather than cure _____ nervous breakdown.

9. When I was five I had _____ measles.

10. At _____ beginning of _____ year Cooper went down with _____ fever.

11. _____ diabetes has become _____ more common disease, mainly because of _____ way we eat.

12. Thousands of people suffer from _____ asthma as _____ result of smoking.

13. _____ person who has _____ high blood pressure can have _____ heart attack.

14. Jane has been laid up with _____ pneumonia for _____ fortnight.

15. _____ singer complained of _____ sore throat after Wednesday's show.

16. I find honey is the best thing to cure … persistent cough.

17. I often suffer from _____ backache.

18. She is believed to have suffered _____ heart attack in her London flat.

19. _____ doctor diagnosed _____ appendicitis and she was operated on.

20. I caught _____ influenza along with _____ scarlet fever.

21. _____ malaria is still _____ common disease in West Africa.

22. I caught _____ influenza along with _____ scarlet fever.

23. _____ first symptoms of _____ disease are _____ upset stomach and _____ slight fever.

24. Peter is in _____ bed with _____ attack of _____ rheumatism.

25. _____ severe bout of _____ scarlet fever when he was _____ boy left him so deaf that he was unable to attend _____ school.



Exercise 6.4. Insert the proper articles.

Here’s Health!

«I think that’s all, Mrs. Grant», Dr Grey said as he handed her (1)_____ long list of prescriptions. (2)_____ list was very long and Mrs. Grant almost fainted as she tried to read it. She had (3)_____ headache and (4)_____ cold and felt as if she was going to have (5)_____ flu. On top of this, one of her children was in (6)_____ bed with (7)_____ mumps. Besides, her husband was having (8)_____ heart trouble. «I’ve prescribed some pills for (9)_____ high blood pressure as well», said Dr. Grey. «How many do I have to take – (10)_____ pill (11)_____ day?»  «No, one pill with each meal. Three pills (12)_____ day». Mrs. Grant thanked (13)_____ doctor and walked out of (14)_____ surgery with some difficulty. She went into (15)_____ local chemist’s and handed (16)_____ long prescription list to Mr. Burt, (17)_____ chemist. Mr. Burt greeted her cheerfully and said, glancing at (18)_____ list. «What (19)_____ list! I trust you are keeping well!»



7. The Use of Articles with Names of Meals


Exercise 7.1. Study the rule. 

  • No article is generally used with names of meals breakfast, lunch, luncheon, brunch, dinner, supper, tea.

 e.g. have breakfast, cook dinner, serve lunch.  He had lunch at his club


  • A/an or the is used with names of meals when we use a descriptive attribute with them.

 e.g. That was a very nice lunch.


  • Theis used with names of meals with a specific reference.

 e.g. Do you remember the lunch in the park?


  • Theis used when names of meals denote the food that is eaten.

 e.g. The lunch we ate at the hotel dining-room was quite decent. 


  • The words dinner and lunch can be used with the indefinite article in the meaning a large formal social gathering.

 e.g. Afterwards, Her Royal Highness attended a dinner at the Castle Hotel. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 7.2. Comment on the use of the articles with names of meals.

1. We're having fish for dinner tonight.

2. At the end of the conference there was a dinner.

3. The dinner they serve here is really fantastic.

4. I’m afraid I have to cancel the dinner tonight.

5. I saw that he had a really good dinner.



Exercise 7.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ lunch I ordered was burnt.

2. Let’s have _____ breakfast on _____ terrace.

3. Do you always have _____ tea at five?

4. _____ breakfast I ordered still hasn’t arrived.

5. We’ve arrived to the Smiths for _____ lunch.

6. _____ dinner was as good as it looked and smelled.

7. _____ waiter came with _____ breakfast at last.

8. I’ll give you _____ native dinner. My wife is _____ excellent cook.

9. Think of _____ enormous breakfast you ate.

10. She began to dress for _____ dinner to which she had been invited.

11. I am on _____ diet so I never eat _____ big dinner.

12. _____ walk is expected to last all day so bring _____ packed lunch.

13. We stopped for _____ cream tea on _____ way _____ home.

14. After _____ hearty breakfast we set out for _____ hike.

15. The kids get _____ hot lunch at _____ school during _____ winter.

16. She didn’t enjoy _____ dinner: _____ soup was watery and _____ meat was tough.

17. On _____ first day of _____ vacation we all slept late, then had _____ huge brunch.

18. _____ supper is _____ lighter meal than _____ dinner.

19. He treated his wife to _____ nice breakfast in _____ bed on her birthday. 

20. _____ former Olympic champion was invited to speak at _____ charity dinner.

21. We had finished _____ dinner and were waiting for _____ bill.

22. If you want inspiration for _____ light lunch or _____ impressive supper, we can provide it.

23. Are we expected to dress for _____ dinner held at _____ hotel?

24. In Britain, _____ main meal of _____ day is _____ dinner and it is usually eaten in _____ evening. Some people call this meal _____ supper, but to others _____ supper is _____ very small meal that is eaten just before they go to _____ bed.

25. The meals we had were not good. We had _____ breakfast in _____ hotel, and that wasn’t too bad. We usually went out for _____ lunch, because _____ lunch they served in _____ hotel was always the same. And _____ dinner we had at _____ hotel on our first evening was pretty awful, so we tried a few restaurants. On our last evening we had _____ marvelous meal in _____ Chinese restaurant. 



8.  The Use of Articles with Names of Parts of the Day


Exercise 8.1. Study the rule. 

  • Names of times of the day and night

 day, night, evening, morning, noon, afternoon, dusk, twilight, midnight, nightfall, dawn, daytime, daybreak, sunrise, sunset  are used without any article in the general meaning

 a)  when they denote light or darkness.

 e.g. The sun set behind the hills and night came.


 b)  when they are used as part of a predicate

 e.g. It was dusk but the men were still at sea.


 c) after the prepositions at, after, before, by, with, till, until, towards, past

 e.g. All her life she always got up at dawn.


 d) in the following set expressions

 all day (long), all night (long), day after day, day in day out, from morning till night, night after night, day and night, from day to day, in the dead of night, etc.

 e.g. Quietly he went to his work day after day.


 e)  when these nouns are modified by the adjectives late, early, broad (in broad daylight), high (at high noon) and words tomorrow, yesterday, Sunday, Monday, etc.

 e.g. It was early morning. 

  • Names of times of the day and night

 are used with the indefinite article when they are modified by descriptive adjectives.

 e.g. It was a frosty night.


  • Names of times of the day and night are used with the definite article

 a) when the reference is specific

 e.g. The day came when he told her that he was leaving.


 b) after the prepositions in(to), for, during, through(out)

 e.g. It snowed all through the night.


 c) when these nouns are preceded by the pronoun other

 e.g. I met Jones in Oxford Street the other day.









Practice Activities.


Exercise 8.2. Comment on the use of the articles with names of parts of the day.

1. Dusk fell without my noticing it. 6. Workers at the first manufactures were made to work from morning till night.
2. It was evening, the fishermen’s boats were returning one by one. 7. On a warm September evening he strolled idly to the park.
3. By late afternoon guests began to arrive for the official birthday party. 8. I went to Aunt Milly’s house on Friday morning.
4. The morning of his departure was rainy. 9. It was a cold, grey morning. By nightfall, it would rain.
5. It was five o’clock in the afternoon when he finally put the book down. 10. We got back to the inn as night was falling. 



Exercise 8.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. Every evening at _____ sunset _____ flag was lowered.

2. _____ day broke and everything seemed better.

3. We should be there by _____ noon.

4. I can never sleep on _____ moonlit night.

5. I finished _____ letter by _____ late afternoon.

6. We went for _____ walk along _____ beach at _____ twilight.

7. It was _____ beautiful sunset.

8. We arrived in Sydney as _____ dawn broke.

9. _____ silent night was followed by _____ bright dawn.

10. I’ve never seen _____ dawn like that.

11. I got up early to admire _____ dawn.

12. The street lights go on at _____ dusk.

13. They had to leave shortly after _____ midnight.

14. _____ foul morning may turn into _____ fair day.

15. She worked from _____ dawn to _____ dusk but earned little money.

16. I haven’t had _____ early night for _____ week already. 

17. _____ breakfast will be served in _____ morning after _____ sunrise.

18. Someone got up in _____ night.

19. I’m often wide awake at _____ night.

20. He rode through _____ night and reached _____ town shortly after _____ dawn.

21. Where were you on _____ night of _____ burglary?

22. He was robbed in _____ broad daylight.

23. I could make out _____ dark figure in _____ twilight.

24. There’s _____ great film on _____ TV at _____ midnight.

25. My parents are coming for _____ dinner _____ tomorrow night.

26. I saw her in _____ town _____ other night.

27. We had to be on _____ ship by _____ nightfall, so we set off from _____ hotel in _____ grey chilly afternoon.

28. _____ battle began at three in _____ morning and continued uninterrupted until past _____ daybreak.

29. He was attacked in _____ dead of _____ night on _____ narrow path in _____ wood.

30. _____ ancient advice is to get up before _____ sunrise and to go to _____ bed with _____ sunset.



9.  The Use of Articles with Names of Seasons, Months, Days of the Week, Holidays


Exercise 9.1. Study the rule. 

  • Words denoting seasons winter, spring, summer, autumn (fall) are mostly used without any article when

 a) they are used as part of a predicate

 e.g. It was spring and the air was pleasant.

 b) these nouns are modified by the adjectives late, early, real

 e.g. It was late autumn.







  • Names of seasons are used with the

 indefinite article when they are modified by descriptive adjectives.

 e.g. It was a rainy autumn.


 Names of seasons are used with the definite article when

 a) the reference is specific

 e.g. It was the winter of 1995 when things started to go wrong for the company.

 b) after the prepositions in(to), for, during, through(out)

 e.g. The family moved to the country for the winter.


  • No article is used with words

 denoting holidays, months and days of the week.

 e.g.  We’re meeting on Friday for lunch.

 We go away on Christmas.




  • New Year in the meaning the holiday

 period can be used either without any article or with the.

 e.g. In Scotland, they really know how to celebrate (the) New Year.

 We say in the New Year when we indicate

 the period at or near the beginning of next year.

 e.g. I’ll see you again in the New Year. 

  • Words denoting holidays, months and

 days of the week are used with the definite article to talk about a specific time.

 e.g. It was the Friday before she went to Australia.

 I started to work here the Easter before last.


  • Words denoting holidays are used

 with the indefinite article when they are modified by descriptive adjectives.

 e.g. We had a wonderful Christmas.


  • Words denoting days of the week are

 used with the indefinite article to show that we are only interested in the day of the week.

 e.g. Don’t do it on a Monday. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 9.2. Comment on the use of the articles with names of seasons, days of the week, holidays.

1. The winter was fine that year and we were happy.

2. The autumn of 1970 was very warm.

3. It was summer and the place broke up in red flowers.

4. He won’t last through the spring.

5. We had a rainy summer.

6. Easter is a great time in Poland.

7. What are you doing after lunch on Tuesday?

8. They arrived on a Saturday as far as I can remember.

9. It happened on the Saturday after my birthday.

10. The Christmas I remember best from my childhood happened when I was about five. It really was a very special Christmas.



Exercise 9.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. She starts work on _____ Monday next week.

2. They phoned on _____ Monday before _____ accident.

3. My birthday falls on _____ Monday this year.

4. I remember when Frank was last here. It was _____ Christmas I got my new bike.

5. It was _____ Christmas to remember.

6. We are returning after _____ Christmas.

7. _____ race is always held in _____ June.

8. We last saw Dave _____ June your mother was staying with us.

9. Even though it was _____ March, the weather reminded me of _____ hot June day.

10. _____ exhibition opens to _____ public at _____ Easter.

11. There was _____ long drought in South Africa in _____ summer of 1993.

12. We had _____ Indian summer that year, very hot until _____ October.

13. He was hoping for _____ white Christmas with a lot of snow on _____ ground.

14. We had _____ really good time over _____ New Year.

15. I wish you _____ merry Christmas and _____ happy New Year!

16. The twenty-ninth is _____ Tuesday, isn't it?

17. I’ll contact you in _____ New Year.

18. We arrived in England on _____ cold wet Sunday in 1963.

19. I can't remember _____ Christmas like it.

20. I’m sure it was _____ Monday, because that’s when I go shopping, but I can’t remember _____ exact date. 


Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles. Comment on the use of articles.

1.  _____ man gets deeper into the secrets of _____ space.  9. _____ road to _____ prison was blocked by policemen. 
2. My friend is _____ man of culture and wide reading.  10. I don’t remember _____ white Christmas.
3. It was _____ high noon when I woke. 11. _____ bus doesn’t stop running till _____ midnight. 
4. _____ dusk was falling when we came back home.  12. It was _____ wet afternoon in _____October. 
5. Who is considered to be _____ father of _____ modern novel?  13. We left _____ place after _____ hearty breakfast. 
6. The weather was cold on _____ morning of his arrival.  14. Our lives are dominated by _____ television.
7. I don’t believe _____ word of it.  15. She had _____ scarlet fever, but she never complained.
8. At last _____ sun rose over _____ horizon.  16. It isn’t easy to find _____ dentist on _____ Sunday.
9. _____ giraffe is _____ tallest animal on earth.  



Exercise 2. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ fly is _____ common insect.

2. _____ poor child was running … high temperature.

3. What was _____ holiday family dinner without _____ eldest son, _____ primary heir?

4. _____ police have a lot of support from _____ general public over this issue.

5. I was surprised that they were going to stay in _____ town all summer.

6. _____ spider has got eight legs.

7. It was as quiet in _____ forest as in _____ church.

8. We shall have _____ early breakfast tomorrow.

9. After _____ tea all _____ family gathered in _____ living room.

10. _____ severe bronchitis is no joke for _____ man of my age.

11. _____ pneumonia is not _____ catching decease.

12. _____ judge sent David to _____ prison for _____ month.

13. Are you going to _____ church on Sunday?

14. _____ pale sun couldn’t make its way through _____ thick London fog.

15. After _____ flue _____ boy felt very weak and depressed.

16. _____ earth takes _____ year to make _____ circuit of _____ sun.

17. _____ burglar hit me on _____ back of my neck.

18. I feel that _____ hundred miles _____ hour is too fast even on _____ motorway.

19. Too much rubbish is being dumped in _____ sea.

20. I saw _____ lone commuter waiting on _____ platform for _____ train late at _____ night.

21. There was never enough money around _____ house. Therefore he did not go to _____ college.

22. He had left his wife in _____ car and walked to _____ nearest telephone box.

23. He soon bought _____ small farm eight miles away from _____ town.

24. Edison invented _____ phonograph.

25. _____ monkey is _____ animal nearest to _____ man in appearance.

26. _____ dog can’t climb _____ tree.

27. Some people have _____ bad earache when _____ plane is coming down.

28. It was _____ old friend of mine with whom we had gone through _____ college together.

29. _____ boy was sorry to be coming back to _____ school after holidays.

30. Her husband was in _____ navy and spent a lot of time away at _____ sea.

31. There was _____ light epidemic of _____ flu.

32. Protestors gathered outside _____ court to await _____ verdict.

33. We were looking for _____ place to spend _____ night. _____ place we found turned out to be _____ charming village. _____ village was called Lodsworth.

34. _____ most of my phone calls seem to be in _____ early evening, when I’m trying to cook _____ meal, take  _____ relaxing bath or I am getting ready for _____ evening out.

35. We wanted to reach _____ small village and knew we were somewhere near it. Then we saw _____ woman just ahead and some children playing. When we stopped to ask _____ way, _____ woman said she was _____ stranger herself.



Exercise 3. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes and then correct them.

1. Look outside. The sky is getting very dark. I hope there isn’t going to be a storm.

2. The ambassador is giving a dinner for the visiting president.

3. A group of people came out of the cinema, crossed the road and went into a pub.

4. I’ve got a problem with my phone bill. Can I see a manager about it? – Yes, go to the fifth floor. A lift is along the corridor.

5. Why were you late for your meeting? – Well, first I had to go to the hotel I’d booked into. I took the taxi from the airport, and the driver got completely lost. It was a terrible nuisance. The man was a complete idiot.

6. Is this the book you were telling me about? – Yes, it’s a really interesting story. It’s a science fiction story. It’s about the beginning of the universe.

7. Is there the newsagent’s near here? – There are several, the nearest one is just down the road on the left opposite the florist’s.

8. Her husband is ill in hospital so she has to stay at home to look after a child instead of going to work.

9. When my father was ill and had to go to hospital, my sister went with him in an ambulance. She is a doctor, and she works in hospital.

10. I haven’t got the time or talent to cook a full meal. I usually heat up frozen meal or order a takeaway.





Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles.

1. What can we do to save _____ whale from dying out?

2. We came here in _____ summer of 2006.

3. Send me _____ e-mail if you have any news.

4. Are you doing anything at _____ weekend?

5. It's been _____ surprisingly mild winter.

6. _____ great white shark is deadly.

7. _____ winter always depresses me.

8. We reached _____ village before _____ sunset.

9. There was _____ funny hat perched on _____ top of her head like _____ mushroom.

10. Is _____ pop festival on _____ Friday? – I think it’s _____ Friday after that.

11. Will you be in America for _____ Thanksgiving? – Oh, no. That’s in _____ November, isn’t it?

12. At _____ end of _____ film, _____ pair of them ride off into _____ sunset.

13. _____ baby was born on _____ Monday.

14. I get two weeks off _____ school at _____ Easter.

15. I finally killed _____ fly with _____ rolled-up newspaper.

16. They had _____ early supper before going to _____ theatre.

17. Does it snow here at _____ Christmas? – Not often. We haven’t had _____ white Christmas for years.

18. On _____ Wednesday there will be _____ partial eclipse of _____ sun.

19. We always see _____ New Year in at _____ home.

20. What’s _____ use in taking _____ medicine for _____ cold?

21. With _____ wedding and _____ new job, it was _____ summer she would always remember.

22. He told us that the man had been gored by _____ bull and was in _____ hospital.

23. _____ hot bath and _____ good dinner fixed him up.

24. He heard _____ popular song played by _____ dance band on _____ radio.

25. He bought _____ suit yesterday but _____ jacket had _____ button missing, so he had to return it back.

26. I’d like to look round _____ castle in _____ afternoon. – Well, it’s just _____ ruin. _____ building dates from _____ year 900.

27. Even when she gets _____ flu, my friend Alice won’t go to see _____ doctor because she’s afraid he’ll give her _____ injection.

28. He got _____ flu and was taken to _____ hospital. I expect they’ll send him _____ home at _____ end of _____ next week. Have you rung _____ hospital to ask how he is?

29. _____ tour of _____ palace included _____ visit to _____ old kitchen where they were baking bread and _____ huge underground wine cellar which contained thousands of bottles and felt like _____ prison.

30. _____ dilemma is _____ situation in which you have _____ choice and you are not sure what to do. In my dilemma, I had _____ good job as _____ secretary for _____ big company, but I really wanted to become _____ architect and I couldn’t do that without going to _____ university.



Exercise 2. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes and then correct them.

1. That’s the fifth time he has taken an entrance exam.

2. Dad, can I borrow a car tonight?

3. There was an article about pollution in the paper.

4. A rabbit sleeps with eyes closed but a hare keeps them open when he is asleep.

5. The noise woke me up in the middle of the night.

6. They had finished all dinner before they finished the conversation.

7. The plane and the radio have brought us closer together.

8. I was a long time at the supermarket. There was an enormous queue. I was thinking of complaining to a manager.

9. The waiter had a short beard and a round face.

10. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.

11. A wild apple is the sourest of all fruits.

12. At local hospital Dr. Brown performed the emergency operation for the appendicitis last night.

13. The sun heats sea more at the equator than at the poles.

14. The ambassador is giving dinner to the visiting president.

15. A fax machine was a wonderful invention of the time.



Exercise 3. Insert articles where necessary. 

Do you see man standing near door? He works as assistant in same shop as I do. Well, I saw him other day and he was driving big red car. And do you see expensive clothes he’s wearing? Where does he get money to pay for it all? Month ago he hadn’t got penny. I told you about burglary that we had at shop, didn’t I? Do you think I should go to police?



10. Countable and Uncountable Nouns


Exercise 10.1. Study the rule. 

  • There are two types of nouns: proper nouns and common nouns. Proper nouns are names of particular persons, places, or things. They are usually unique and thus are used either with the definite article or without any article.

 e.g. Charles Dickens, San Francisco, the Plaza Hotel


  • Common nouns refer to people, places, or things but not the names of particular individuals.

 e.g.  book, courage, heart, tiger, vegetable, water


  • There are two types of common nouns: count (countable) nouns and non-count (uncountable) nouns. Count nouns name things that can be counted.

 Non-count (mass) nouns name things that cannot be counted in their normal sense because they exist in a mass form. Non-count nouns in their normal meaning are not preceded by aor an, though they are often preceded by some and the.

 e.g. I bought rice. The water in the river is dirty. Let me give you (some) advice.


  • Typical non-count nouns are:

 - abstract ideas: advice, behaviour, chance, energy, evil, fun, happiness, honesty, love

 - activities and occupations: bowling, dancing, football, tennis, construction, nursing

 - diseases: cancer, malaria, measles

 - substances: gold, oxygen, coffee, gasoline, sand, sugar

 - foods: beef, fruit, meat, rice

 - natural phenomena: cold, electricity, ice, light, lighting, rain

 - subjects: astronomy, business, science, English

 - collection nouns: equipment, furniture, luggage


  • We frequently make non-count nouns countable by adding a phrase that gives them a form, a limit, or a container.

 e.g. furniture – a piece of furniture; lightning – a bolt (flash) of lightning; meat – a piece of meat; rice – a grain of rice; water – a cup of water 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 10.2. First match the phrases from column A with the words from column B, then finish up the sentences using the word combinations.    


 1. a blob of  6. a few drops of
 2. a drop of  7. a bar of
 3. a pile of  8. a lump of
 4. a pool of  9. a splash of
 5. a pinch of  10. a sip of


 a) tea  f) sugar
 b) mud  g) rain
 c) ink  h) milk
 d) dirty clothes  i) salt
 e) blood  j) chocolate

1. I saw _______________ on her skirt.

2. She didn’t answer, chewing at _______________.

3. There was _______________ on her blouse.

4. Could I have _______________ in my coffee, please.

5. The body was lying in _______________.

6. The sauce tastes a bit bland, add _______________.

7. There was _______________ on his bed.

8. I felt _______________.

9. Each child was given _______________.

10. I’ve drunk a little tea, just _______________. 



Exercise 10.3. First match the phrases from column A with the words from column B, then finish up the sentences using the word combinations.    

 A.    B.
1) a herd of a) jewelry 
2) a speck of b) sand 
3) an article of  c) lightning 
4) a piece of  d) furniture 
5) a clap of  e) advice 
6) a grain of  f) astronomy 
7) a bolt/a flash of  g) rice 
8) a current of  h) cattle 
9) a branch of  i) electricity 
  j) dust 
  k) thunder 

1. A statement of recommended behaviour is ____________________.

2. An individual particle of a material produced by disintegration of stone and rock is called _______________.

3. A single movable structure on which one sits or sleeps is called _______________.

4. A decorative object worn on the body or clothes is called _______________.

5. An instance of loud sound usually accompanying lightning is _______________.

6. An individual particle of a cereal grown in warm and wet areas is called _______________.

7. A collection of bovine mammals is called _______________.

8. A continuing flow of electrons is called _______________.

9. A small piece of a very fine, sometimes powdery material is termed _______________.

10. A subcategory of that science which deals with the study of planets, stars, galaxies is called _______________. 



11. The Use of Articles with Uncountable Nouns  


Exercise 11.1. Study the rule. 

 Many nouns that are generally uncountable can also be countable in certain contexts.


  • Some nouns are uncountable when we talk about the substance, material or abstract concept but countable when we talk about one specific item. We use the indefinite article in the latter case.

 e.g. light – a light, stone – a stone, education – an education


  • Some nouns which are usually uncountable can be countable when we refer to a particular variety and are used with the indefinite article.

 e.g. wine – a wine of the region, cheese – a strong cheese, fruit – a very sweet fruit


  • In informal English, drinks and some types of food which are normally uncountable can be counted, particularly when we are making an order in a cafe or restaurant.

 e.g. tea – three teas, soup – two soups


  • -ing – nouns (some grammar books use the term gerund) can be used

 - with the indefinite article with nouns referring to an action, event, or sound:

 e.g. She became aware of a humming that seemed to come from all around her.

 - with the definite article when we refer to a specific activity

 e.g. Have you done the shopping yet?

 - without any article when we refer to a general activity

 e.g. My hobbies include reading and painting.     



Practice Activities.


Exercise 11.2. Comment on the use of the articles.

1. I’m very interested in education. 6. She is a real beauty.
2. It is important that she receives a good education. 7. It’s not so much the washing of his shirts I mind, it’s the ironing of them.
3. I don’t usually drink coffee. 8. Farming is the world’s biggest industry.
4. I’ll have two teas and a coffee, please. 9. There was a beating of wings overhead.
5. Beauty is subjective.  



Exercise 11.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. I’m fortunate to have _____ very good education. 14. He has _____ terrible fear of heights.
2. You’ve been _____ great help to me. 15. If there is one thing I hate, it’s _____ shopping for Christmas presents.
3. _____ education does not just take place at _____ school. 16. _____ painting can be _____ very relaxing activity.
4. There’s been _____ death in his family. 17. Smith has _____ good knowledge of finance.
5. He has _____ great love of music. 18. _____ death comes to us all one day.
6. Would you like _____ baked potato? 19. I usually eat _____ fruit for _____ breakfast.
7. You’ll get better at _____ job as you gain _____ experience. 20. Has this soup got _____ potato in it?
8. You shouldn’t drink _____ wine on _____ empty stomach. 21. Chianti is _____ Italian wine.
9. That’s _____ very unusual fruit. What is it? 22. _____ lying in _____ sun is many people’s idea of _____ happiness.
10. _____ fear is _____ perfectly natural human feeling. 23. You might serve it with _____ jam and _____ fresh coffee, or with _____ well-chilled dessert wine.
11. To make ... fresh milk cheese at ... home is ... simplest of processes. 24. Being _____ parent isn't easy, as I know from _____ experience.
12. I’m so glad I did it: it was _____ wonderful experience. 25. On hearing _____ story she had retired to _____ bed with _____ headache leaving Jim to do _____ washing-up.
13. He went to _____ bar and ordered _____ beer.  



Exercise 11.4. Study the rule. 

  • Some nouns which are uncountable when we talk about the material and countable when we refer to a specific thing, have a specific meaning as countable nouns. In this case we use either the definite or the indefinite article.

 e.g. glass refers to a material; a glass refers to an item we drink from which is made of glass. 



Exercise 11.5. Match these words to the definition. 

 1) study

 2) a study

 3) light

 4) a light

 5) duck

 6) a duck

 7) play

 8) a play

 9) thought

 10) a thought

 11) work

 12) a work

 13) air

 14) an air

 15) fire

 16) a fire 

  • the activity of learning
  • a small, controlled fire that you make to provide heat
  • a story performed on stage by actors
  • a device that we switch in the room when it goes dark
  • meat from a particular kind of bird
  • a word used to describe someone’s manners or appearance
  • the job that a person does
  • a form of energy from the sun which enables us to see
  • an activity performed purely for pleasure, not work
  • a piece of research that examines a question or subject in detail
  • a mental process
  • an idea
  • the heat and light produced by something burning
  • the stuff we breathe in order to stay alive
  • a book, a piece of music, painting
  • a kind of bird that lives on or near water



Exercise 11.6. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ bride’s dress was _____ work of art.

2. We need some wood to make _____ fire.

3. _____ air consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen

4. I’ve given _____ matter _____ careful thought.

5. All teachers understand _____ importance of _____ learning through _____ play.

6. It’s _____ room set aside for _____ private study.

7. _____ restaurant’s speciality is _____ roast duck with _____ orange sauce.

8. Venice in winter has _____ air of mystery and sadness.

9. Is there _____ light in this room?

10. We need _____ room with _____ good natural light.

11. I had to be rescued by my neighbours when my house caught _____ fire.

12. Studying _____ law is _____ hard work.

13. This is hardly _____ original thought.

14. They decided to put on _____ play about teenage runaways.

15. She devoted herself to _____ serious study of modern farming methods.

16. _____ duck is _____ very common water bird. 



Exercise 11.7. Match these words to the definition. 

 1) glass

 2) a glass

 3) paper

 4) a paper

 5) wood

 6) a wood

 7) iron

 8) an iron

 9) string

 10) a string

 11) cloth

 12) a cloth

 13) language

 14) a language

 15) speech

 16) a speech

  • a long thin pieces of wire on a musical instrument  
  • the use of written or spoken words to communicate
  • a set of large printed sheets of paper containing news, articles, pictures, etc
  • a substance used, for example, in windows
  • a metal, chemical symbol Fe, from which steel is made
  • a group or clump of trees
  • something which you use for tying up parcels
  • a container for drinking out of
  • the ability by which human beings communicate with each other
  • a device for taking unwanted creases out of clothes
  • the material obtained from trees with which we make furniture
  • material for writing on
  • a formal talk
  • a system of communication by written or spoken words used by the people of a particular country or area
  • a piece of material used for wiping or cleaning
  • a material from which clothes are made




Exercise 11.8. Insert the proper articles. 

1. Wipe _____ surface with _____ damp cloth.

2. _____ iron rusts easily.

3. Why study Latin? It’s _____ dead language.

4. He made _____ announcement in _____ speech on _____ TV.

5. _____ parcel was held together with _____ string.

6. Try to give your instructions in _____ everyday language.

7. They used to export _____ cotton cloth.

8. _____ iron is _____ device for making clothes smooth.

9. _____ vegetables are grown under _____ glass.

10. She handed him _____ parcel wrapped in _____ brown paper.

11. This expression is used mainly in _____ speech, not in _____ writing.

12. I handed her _____ glass of wine.

13. _____ key is hanging on _____ string by _____ door.

14. Do you take _____ local paper?

15. We gathered _____ wood for _____ fire.

16. We descended through _____ oak wood to _____ village below. 



12. The Use of Articles with Uncountable and Plural Nouns


Exercise 12.1. Study the rule. 

  • A plural noun or an uncountable noun used with no article has a general meaning.

 e.g.  Cars are expensive to buy.

 Coffee is more expensive than tea.

 I hate people who never say hello.   

  • A plural noun or an uncountable noun used with the has a specific meaning.

 e.g. The cars had both broken down.

 Be careful, the coffee is hot.    

 The people who live next door are very friendly. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 12.2. Comment on the use of the articles with uncountable and plural nouns.

1. Elephants are intelligent animals. 6. He swept up the broken glass.
2. We saw the elephants at the zoo. 7. Life in the old days was hard.
3. I don’t understand computers. 8. The life of Lord Byron was adventurous.
4. The computers crashed at work today. 9. She lived a long and happy life.
5. Glass is made from sand.  



Exercise 12.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. Look at _____ oil on your sweater. 15. _____ sun is _____ star. We need _____ sun for _____ heat, _____ light and _____ energy.
2. I'm tired. I've done _____ shopping. 16. _____ cake is _____ real work of art!
3. Can you give me _____ description of it? 17. The children put on _____ play adapted from _____ Russian folk tale.
4. Have you made _____ progress with Chinese? 18. She was still deep in _____ thought when _____ sound of _____ car drew her to _____ window.
5. There's _____ rubbish in your garden. 19. _____ sparks from _____ fireplace could easily set _____ curtains on _____ fire.
6. _____ doctors are concerned with _____ health of their patients. 20. _____ new law will benefit _____ people in _____ part-time work.
7. I can’t express _____ happiness I felt when I heard _____ news. 21. _____ air consists mainly of _____ nitrogen and oxygen.
8. _____ butter is _____ dairy product. 22. She had _____ air of _____ quiet confidence.
9. _____ people drink _____ fresh water. They can’t drink _____ seawater because it contains _____ salt. 23. I've just had _____ thought - it might be quicker to go by _____ bus.
10. Do you have _____ shampoo for _____ dry hair?  
11. _____ people used to use _____ candles for _____ light, but now they use _____ electricity. 24. We went off to collect _____ wood to build _____ fire.
12. _____ air was full of _____ dust from _____ wind storm. 25. _____ main trade of _____ region was _____ production of _____ woolen cloth.
13. _____ fruit in _____ bowl is ripe. – Good. I think I’ll have _____ piece. 26. … nurses are trained to look after … sick or injured people.



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 1. Study Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, find out which of the following word combinations are possible

                   and define the difference in the meaning of the following pairs of words.

a) the/ - struggle – a struggle h) the/ - war – a war
b) the/ - experience – an experience i) the/ - reason – a reason
c) the/ - sport – a sport j) the / - faith – a faith
d) the/ - noise – a noise k) the/ - room – a room
e) the/ - business – a business l) the/ - home – a home
f) the/ - time – a time m) the/ - history – a history
g) the/  - hair – a hair n) the/ - nature – a nature



Exercise 2. Insert the proper articles. 

1. I think _____ sport is boring. 15. He has _____ blind faith in doctors’ ability to find _____ cure.
2. Rugby is _____ popular sport in England. 16. _____ faith is _____ set of beliefs like _____ religion.
3. _____ constant noise can make you ill. 17. The Great October revolution was _____ turning point in _____ human history.
4. We heard _____ sudden noise outside. 18. He has _____ history of _____ violent crime.
5. I run _____ small business. 19. I’d like to book _____ room with _____ view of _____ lake.
6. I enjoy doing _____ business. 20. Do you have _____ room for _____ computer on your desk?
7. I am _____ pacifist, I don’t believe in _____ war. 21. I’ll clear _____ space for your books on _____ shelf.
8. In _____ end there was _____ war between England and Scotland. 22. Can we make _____ space for _____ extra chair?
9. My watch keeps _____ perfect time. 23. We must live in _____ peace with _____ nature.
10. She ran up the stairs two at _____ time. 24. _____ man had _____ violent nature.
11. There is _____ hair on your shirt. 25. ______ furniture can be _____ costly item when you set up _____ home.
12. She has _____ long wavy hair. 26. We need _____ doctor with _____ experience in dealing with _____ patients suffering from _____ stress.
13. We have to rely on _____ reason, not _____ authority. 27. I had _____ bad experience with _____ fireworks once.
14. There must exist _____ reason for _____ FBI intervention. 28. This region is _____ home of many species of _____ wild flowers.



Exercise 3. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ atlas is _____ book of _____ maps.

2. Many children have _____ fear of rejection.

3. I prefer living in _____ country, it’s quieter than _____ town.

4. Finland is _____ country that is famous for its lakes.

5. _____ farmer’s day begins at _____ sunrise.

6. _____ dentists are well-paid, they are probably worth _____ money.

7. May is _____ month of _____ great contrasts in _____ temperature.

8. When we were eating _____ chicken, _____ last guest arrived.

9. _____ young man listened to _____ conversation with _____ amused smile.

10. It was _____ only birthday he had celebrated since he was _____ child.

11. I haven’t _____ chance of getting _____ job anyway.

12. _____ hope of finding _____ cure for _____ cancer stimulates a lot of medical research.

13. There isn’t such thing as _____ free lunch unless you own _____ restaurant.

14. He kept his money in _____ tin under _____ bed.

15. _____ play is more natural for _____ children than for _____ adults.

16. We were surprised at _____ size of _____ bill.

17. Was _____ lecture interesting? – Yes, _____ speaker gave _____ interesting talk.

18. We drove to _____ university opposite which there was _____ church.

19. How are you going to get from _____ church to _____ reception?

20. Although _____ brown rice is better for you, most people prefer _____ white rice.

21. Only in _____ soap operas all of _____ life crises are resolved by _____ Friday.

22. _____ people have always wanted to be able to fly like _____ birds in _____ sky.

23. Just look at _____ snow! It seems to be _____ right kind of snow for skiing.

24. I sometimes go down to _____ town and I might find _____ time to buy _____ child _____ good dinner.

25. During _____ 1890s, many people were leaving from _____ south and moving to _____ north to look for _____work.

26. _____ otter used to be _____ common animal, but it is now found only in _____ north of Britain.

27. Jack’s car ran out of _____ gas. He had to walk _____ long distance to find _____ telephone box and call his father for _____ help.

28. _____ contagious diseases are easily spread. _____ people with _____ contagious diseases can transmit them to _____ rest of _____ population.

29. _____ heart attack is _____ sudden illness in which _____ heart beats violently. It causes _____ great pain and sometimes _____ death.

30. _____ gorillas can only be found deep inside _____ jungle. _____ lions are often called «_____ kings of _____ jungle» although they live on _____ plains. _____ camels have been called «_____ ships of _____ desert».





Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ Christmas tree is _____ evergreen or artificial tree decorated with _____ lights and _____ coloured ornaments in people’s houses on _____ Christmas.

2. _____ Easter egg is _____ egg made of _____ chocolate or _____ hen’s egg with _____ painted shell, given as _____ present to _____ children at _____ Easter.

3. _____ Passover is _____ Jewish religious festival in _____ memory of _____ freeing of _____ Jews from _____ slavery in _____ ancient Egypt.

4. _____ Ramadan is _____ ninth month of _____ Muslim year, when _____ Muslims do not eat or drink anything between _____ sunrise and _____ sunset.

5. _____ Thanksgiving (Day) is _____ public holiday in _____ USA, on _____ fourth Thursday in November, and in _____ Canada on _____ second Monday in October.



Exercise 2.  Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ small baby needs _____ constant attention.

2. _____ cats don’t like _____ cold weather.

3. _____ telephone rules my life.

4. _____ year and ____ half is enough to finish this job.

5. In _____ hot afternoon his shirt was damp with _____ sweat.

6. _____ history of _____ world is _____ history of _____ war.

7. _____ children were dressed up in _____ second-hand clothes.

8. Is there _____ moon round _____ planet Venus?

9. _____ running is good for _____ heart.

10. _____ astronaut is _____ person who travels in _____ space.

11. _____ only problem here is _____ weather.

12. _____ life would seem strange no without _____ satellite television.

13. _____ liver is used to purify _____ blood.

14. What has been _____ longest period of _____ peace in _____ history?

15. _____ journeys to _____ unknown places require a lot of planning.

16. I used all _____ butter that was in _____ butter dish.

17. _____ girl didn’t want to take _____ advice from _____ total stranger.

18. Then they had _____ talk about _____ changes which _____ doctor had made in _____ hospital.

19. Most of _____ watches you see today work on _____ quartz.

20. _____ man gets deeper into _____ secrets of _____ space, into _____ mysteries of _____ universe.

21. _____ lives of _____ poets and _____ musicians have often been unbearably difficult.

22. I’m not interested in _____ price of _____ gold or _____ price of _____ silver.

23. _____ fruit and _____ vegetables are _____ main food of _____ vegetarians.

24. He had _____ sense of _____ humor which always helped him in _____ hard times.

25. _____ hope is _____ good breakfast but _____ bad supper.

26. _____ meat we had for _____ lunch _____ last Sunday was very tough.

27. _____ war is _____ poor way to solve _____ problems.

28. _____ philosophers seem to think that _____ life is _____ mystery.

29. In its early years, _____ novel wasn’t thought to be _____ good reading for _____ young ladies.

30. _____ fire and _____ water are _____ good friends but _____ bad masters.

31. _____ apples on _____ other side of _____ wall are _____ sweetest. 

32. You need _____ special tyres on your car when you are driving in _____ snowy weather.

33. I turned on _____ radio and listened to _____ nine o’clock news.

34. I know _____ work that I’ve done is _____ good work, _____ best of my life.

35. _____ builders were making such _____ noise that _____ people living _____ next door complained to _____ police.

36. It’s often said that _____ children can learn _____ foreign languages more easily than _____ adults.

37. _____ supper consisted of _____ onion soup, _____ black sausage with _____ tomato salad, and _____ local cheese with _____ herbs.

38. _____ grizzly bears are _____ mammals, and it is not uncommon for them to be seen near_____ garbage cans in _____ national parks.



Exercise 3. Insert the proper articles.

Dear Jo and Ian,

This is picture of hotel we’re staying at. We were lucky enough to get one of rooms overlooking sea and view is lovely. We had good journey over here and children quite enjoyed flight. They’ve got lovely room of their own and they think hotel’s great. In general, we’ve all been having really good time. Unfortunately, Penny got very sun burnt back on first day so he had to wear T-shirt since then, but apart from that everyone’s been fine. Jeremy’s met English boy of about same age and they get on very well. They went into town on their own last night and bought themselves meal. And tonight they want to go out to disco – there are plenty to choose from.

We’ve spent most of our time on beach so far. Sea is really warm and clear so we’ve done a lot of swimming. Tomorrow we’re going on boat trip to one of islands and we’re going to have barbecue on island. I’m really looking forward to that.  Anyway, I’ll give you ring when we get back and we’ll see you next week. 

Best wishes,                                                                                                                  Sally and Robin.



13. The Use of Articles with Nouns Modified by Numerals


Exercise 13.1. Study the rule. 

  • Cardinal numerals are mainly used without any articles.

 e.g. They received three invitations to Sunday parties.


  • The is used when it is required by the situation.

 e.g. The three weeks spent in the mountains were the best time.


  • No article is used when a cardinal numeral follows a noun.

 e.g. Have you read Chapter Ten?


  • The is mainly used with ordinal numerals.

 e.g. She was the first celebrity I interviewed.


  • An ordinal numeral may mean another, one more. A noun modified by an ordinal numeral in this meaning is used with a/an.

 e.g. I hope you won’t need a second reminder.


  • Some set expressions with first, second, third, etc are used without any article.

 e.g. at first hand; at first sight; to do something first thing; come first; first come, first served; on second thought(s); second to none, a first night performance, etc. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 13.2. Comment on the use of the articles with nouns modified by numerals.

1. The two books you gave me proved very interesting.

2. I rang the bell but nobody answered it, so I had to ring it a second time.

3. She eventually bought a second -hand car that wasn’t too expensive.

4. The cleaners want to finish their work in Room 345 until they leave.

5. Our seats were in the third row.



Exercise 13.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ three children came running along _____ street.

2. Physics is taught in _____ Room 10.

3. He had five wives and Sarah was _____ third.

4. _____ five days seemed _____ age to him.

5. I prefer to travel _____ first class.

6. He fall asleep on _____ page 815 of ‘War and Peace’.

7. Italy scored _____ second goal just after half-time.

8. As _____ dancer, she is _____ second to none.

9. Nobody buys his books, he’s _____ third-rate writer.

10. He knew he should have _____ third try.

11. It is _____ eighteenth-century building.

12. _____ Chicago train is about to depart from _____ track 5.

13. We are having _____ chicken for _____ first course.

14. Alan Power is _____ Formula One driver.

15. It’s _____ fourth room down _____ corridor.

16. Open _____ book at _____ page twenty-five, please.

17. _____ telephone rang almost _____ third time immediately.

18. _____ World War II broke out on _____ first of September 1939.

19. _____ hero dies in _____ Act 5, _____ Scene 3.

20. It’s certain that _____ song will go _____ number one on _____ hit-list.

21. Mary was _____ second of _____ four interview candidates.

22. Between _____ two stools one falls to _____ ground.

23. _____ friend of ours invited Jill to _____ first night performance at _____ theatre.

24. Everything was done in _____ two weeks since they had arrived from _____ seaside.

25. Soon she arrived with _____ second consultant to discuss _____ operation they wanted her to undergo.

26. Encouraged by her smile _____ boy took _____ third helping of _____ apple pie.

27. _____ two leaders have laid _____ foundations of _____ new era in _____ cooperation between their countries.


14. The Use of Articles in the Expressions «such a … or such … », « what a … or what …»


Exercise 14.1. Study the rule. 

  • After the exclamatory what a/an is

 used with singular countable nouns.

 e.g. What a good idea!


  • After the exclamatory what no article

 is used with plural countable nouns and abstract uncountable nouns.

 e.g. What lovely flowers!

 What rubbish! 

  • After «such» a/an is used with

 singular countable nouns.

 e.g. It was such an easy test.


  • After «such» no article is used with

 plural countable nouns and abstract  uncountable nouns.

 e.g. You shouldn’t work such long hours.

 I had such bad luck.                                                                              


  • A goes before very, fairly, really, quite, rather and a countable singular noun.

 e.g. It’s a fairly long walk. I made a really stupid mistake.

 It’s quite a long story. He was a rather curious man to look at.


  • However, quite and rather can be placed after the indefinite article.

 e.g. There was quite a big crowd. He is rather a clever man. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 14.2. Comment on the use of the articles.

1. What a risky situation! 6. It's a really difficult decision.
2. What strong coffee! 7. We are having such depressing weather this autumn!
3. What smart dresses! 8. It was quite an interesting film, wasn’t it?
4. We have got such smashing news. 9. The house has a garage and a fairly big garden.
5. He is such an outstanding man. 10. That's rather a difficult book - here's an easier one for you.



Exercise 14.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. It was such _____ steep hill. 10. My life's such _____ mess.
2. We are having such _____ nice weather. 11. I think about you all the time, Emma. – What _____ lies you tell me, Mathew!
3. Tom tells such _____ awful jokes. 12. What _____ fun we had at _____ party!
4. It’s such _____ long time since I saw you. 13. We found it quite _____ change when we moved to London.
5. Vicky got such _____ warm welcome that she almost cried. 14. What _____ nice shoes you’ve got on!
6. What _____ waste of all that good work! 15. We had quite _____ nice meal at _____ Italian restaurant.
7. Come into the living-room. – Thank you. Oh, what _____ nice room! 16. What _____ extraordinary advice!
8. Vicky believes in ghosts. – Oh, what _____ nonsense she talks. 17. Such _____ cruelty really is beyond my comprehension.
9. Let’s go for _____ midnight swim. – What _____ suggestion! 18. What _____ shame you missed _____ school!



15. The Use of Article before Adjectives


Exercise 15.1. Study the rule. 

 The definite article is used before adjectives:

  • when they are used without a noun to refer to all the people with that characteristic

 e.g. It is only fair that the rich should pay higher taxes.


  • in front of the names of nationalities and political parties or groups

 e.g. the English, the Dutch, the Japanese, the Conservatives


  • with adjectives meaning general abstract notions

 e.g. No one can achieve the impossible.


  • with comparative adjectives in certain structures

 e.g. The larger the biscuit, the longer the baking time.


  • with nouns modified by adjectives in the superlative degree

 e.g. Clair is the prettiest girl I’ve ever seen. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 15.2. Comment on the use of the articles before adjectives.

1. She was confused and afraid of the unknown.

2. In the town there were a lot of shops run by the Chinese.

3. You have to accept the inevitable.

4. The simpler the operation, the better the worker will perform it.

5. It is said that we should never speak ill of the dead.

6. That’s the nicest thing anybody has ever said to me.

7. The Swiss see no need to change their policy of ‘armed neutrality’.



Exercise 15.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ life is very difficult for _____ unemployed these days.

2. _____ older I get, _____ darker my hair gets.

3. Many of _____ injured are still in _____ serious condition.

4. They organized _____ charity dinner for _____ homeless. 

5. _____ government should tax _____ rich more and _____ poor less.

6. _____ industrious Dutch are admired by their neighbours.

7. _____ Spanish claimed that _____ money had not been paid.

8. Do you think that I could ever learn to speak _____ Japanese the way _____ Japanese speak it?

9. _____ Portuguese are very different from _____ French.

10. Agnes has been _____ nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for _____ sick.

11. _____ nearer the winter, _____ shorter the days.

12. I may be stating _____ obvious but without money _____ project cannot survive.

13. _____  homeless are _____ people who have nowhere to live.

14. We all have _____ responsibility o look after _____ old and infirm.

15. There is no evidence that _____ unemployed or _____ poor are being pushed to _____ crime by _____ existing economic situation.



Exercise 15.4. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes and then correct them.

1. The buildings should be specially designed so they can be used by the disabled.

2. I spoke to an official and he gave me very good advice.

3. The police are looking for the young man aged about 23.

4. As the captain of the ship, I have complete authority.

5. We’ll put the shelves and then go to a pub for a drink.

6. I don’t agree that women should stay at home and look after children.

7. A recipe for success is hard work.

8. The people we met on holiday in the north of England sent us a postcard. 

9. They were discussing the problems of the unemployed.

10. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.

11. They had been invited to Hindu wedding and were not sure what happened on such festive occasions.

12. Such an advice as he was given has proved almost worthless.

13. He was not a so quick learner as his brother.

14. She always buys such an expensive clothes, no wonder she never has any money.

15. We all held hands and sang together at midnight on New Year’s Eve.



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles.

1. It’s _____ good chance for Bob to get _____ new job.

2. It’s _____ wonderful weather today. I like _____ frosty weather.

3. _____ kids had _____ wonderful time at _____ New Year Party.

4. She has _____ pleasant manners and _____ wonderful voice.

5. I like to have _____ juice in _____ hot weather.

6. I like _____ ballet very much, but _____ opera makes me fall asleep.

7. It’s _____ very complicated problem, I need _____ advice to solve it.

8. There is _____ meat, _____ fish and _____ vegetables on ___ menu.

9. _____ pets can have _____ positive effect on both _____ mental and _____ physical health.

10. _____ police stopped me for driving _____ wrong way up _____ one-way street.

11. It is interesting to look at _____ old maps of _____ world and see how _____ borders have changed.

12. I want _____ assistant with _____ knowledge of French and _____ experience of _____ office work.

13. It’s _____ very busy district with _____ school, _____ bus station and _____ new sports centre.

14. _____ cold wind was blowing down _____ street _____ last Monday morning as I pushed open _____ heavy glass door of _____ BBC office.

15. _____ medical researchers have discovered _____ new treatment which will help _____ people suffering from _____ asthma.

16. Many teachers object to _____ introduction of _____ computers in _____ school education, as they fear that _____ computers will replace them.

17. _____ celebrity is _____ person who works hard all his life to become known, then wears _____ dark glasses to avoid being recognized.

18. He bought _____ enormous cake for his son, who was in _____ hospital with _____ broken leg, but when he took it to _____ hospital, _____ nurse told him that he wasn't allowed to give it to him.

19. Everyone studied _____ subjects at _____ school which they were not good at. My weakest subject at _____ school was certainly _____ chemistry. I learned _____ formulae and experiments by _____ heart, but I could not improve my performance. Before _____ last exam, I made _____ big effort, but _____ results were unsatisfactory.



Exercise 2. Insert the proper articles. 

Today Melissa Livingston is popular actress. She is star of TV soap opera «Round the Corner». But as child she was very unhappy. She didn’t do well at school, and she never went to college. Her greatest pleasure was going to cinema. Her family lived in unattractive town, and their place was next to station. Melissa’s father was sailor, and he spent months at sea. He was hardly ever at home and when he was, he didn’t do very much. When he lost his job he stole gold cup from church Melissa’s mother used to go to. He had to go to prison for year. Melissa’s mother was horrified at shame he had brought on family.



Exercise 3. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes and then correct them.

1. My sister is married to the farmer.

2. Before people invented a wheel, they couldn’t transport heavy loads easily.

3. I found chewing gum in bed again.

4. He spoke of the picture as work of art.

5. Don’t drink coffee in the evening if you have trouble sleeping at night.

6. The X-ray machine is a valuable tool for doctors, but it has its dangers as well.

7. Why do they always play such a terrible music?

8. We can finish the rest of bread for the breakfast.

9. We all learn by experience.

10. The train departed from the platform 9 – but we were waiting on the platform 5.





Exercise 1. Insert the proper article.

1. Do you believe in _____ supernatural?

2. Fewer people attend _____ church regularly than twenty years ago.

3. If you want you can use _____ calculator in _____ exam.

4. _____ private schools existed only for _____ rich.

5. What was _____ life like before _____ computer?

6. It was _____ good mix of _____ old and _____ new.

7. We found _____ parking space close to _____ museum.

8. _____ scheme has been set up to help _____ homeless.

9. _____ Swiss haven’t had _____ war in _____ hundred and fifty years.

10. _____ forecast promises such _____ nice weather that I hardly believe it

11. He spent a few years after _____ college working in _____ hospital in India.

12. _____ case took five years to come to _____ court.

13. He is in _____ hospital recovering from _____ heart operation.

14. _____ wedding procession moved into _____ church.

15. _____ dangerous criminal escaped from _____ maximum-security prison.

16. _____ wheelchair has improved _____ lives of _____ handicapped.

17. Such _____ deep love can only be seen in _____ films.

18. He set _____ fire to _____ factory so that he could claim _____ insurance.

19. _____ convict is in _____ prison on _____ outskirts of Brighton.

20. _____ more stops in _____ flight, _____ more dangerous it will be.

21. What exactly is _____ olive, _____ fruit or _____ berry?

22. _____ natural materials are safer than _____ synthetic materials when there is _____ fire.

23. _____ horse was _____ symbol of freedom for _____ Apache.

24. When _____ young boy went missing, they needed _____ people to help with _____ search.

25. If _____ person chooses to room alone on _____ cruise, he’ll have to pay _____ additional fee.

26. _____ new campaign against _____ smoking is directed at _____ young women.

27. _____ appearance of _____ room can be improved by adding _____ flourishing green plants.

28. _____ success in some careers often depends on _____ support of _____ friends and relatives.

29. Harris had _____ nasty shock _____ other evening when he saw his neighbour’s house on _____ fire.

30. It was _____ clear warm night and Tom sat on _____ deck, smoking _____ pipe, admiring _____ stars.

31. _____ lack of evidence means that _____ case is unlikely to go to _____ court.

32. I'm going into _____ town at _____ lunchtime to do _____ shopping.

33. She attends _____ special school for _____ children with _____ learning difficulties.

34. You needn’t keep _____ child _____ home from _____ school because of _____ cough.

35. It was _____ unexpected disappointment for him to receive _____ rejection letter from _____ university.

36. We took _____ trip around London on top of _____ double-decker and saw _____ most of _____ famous sights.

37. _____ telephone call from _____ police was _____ shock, but not _____ complete surprise.

38. _____ radio described several ways in which _____ elderly could obtain _____ best medical help.

39. According to some doctors, _____ people living in _____ cold climates are twice as likely to develop _____ rheumatism as _____ people living in _____ warmer climates.

40. _____ whales and _____ dolphins look like _____ fish, but they are _____ mammals that live in _____ ocean and move through ______ water in such _____ ways that resemble _____ movements of _____ dog rather than those of _____ shark.



Exercise 2. Insert the proper articles. 

(1)_____ Day in (2)_____ Life of (3)_____ Ordinary Man.

This morning I woke up around ten, I made up (4)_____ cup of coffee, took it into (5)_____ bedroom and put it on (6)_____ table next to (7)_____ bed, on (8)_____ side my wife sleeps on. I go through this ritual twice (9)_____ week – I do it on Saturday and Sunday mornings. On (10)_____ other days of (11)_____ week, we go to (12)_____ work at (13)_____ different times and I always get up first to get (14)_____ kids ready for (15)_____ school. I drop them off outside (16)_____ school which is (17)_____ old Victorian building on (18)_____ corner of Hill Road, and then straight to (19)_____ work.

I work in (20)_____ office in (21)_____ city centre and I always have (22)_____ problem finding (23)_____ parking place. My wife says I’m always complaining about (24)_____ traffic and (25)_____ pollution, which is true – you see, I grew up in (26)_____ country, close to (27)_____ nature and I have never got used to living in (28)_____ city. I think (29)_____ only thing I would miss about not living in (30)_____ big city like this is going to (31)_____ concerts of all kinds. I love (32)_____ rock and (33)_____ classical music, too, and especially going to (34)_____ cinema, which I am particularly keen on. I also like (35)_____ good food and occasionally we go out and have (36)_____ dinner in (37)_____ Chinese restaurant, but most of (38)_____ time we eat at (39)_____ home, where (40)_____ food is delicious – except when I make it.  



Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Прошел год, затем другой, третий, писем все не было.

2. Умные люди знают, что опыт – лучший учитель.

3. Леви Страус, немецкий эмигрант, является изобретателем брюк, которые названы его именем.

4. Дракон символизирует зло в сказках.

5. Обед в китайском ресторане был очень острым.

6. У тигра всегда была репутация людоеда.

7. Я не могу привыкнуть к тихой жизни в деревне, т.к. прожил 20 лет в городе.

8. Водитель машины в большом городе должен быть очень внимательным.

9. Спустя месяц после освобождения  (release) из тюрьмы, он сидел в баре.

10. Есть одна новость, которую я хочу с вами обсудить.

11. Знания можно приобрести упорным трудом.

12. Чернила в этой чернильнице высохли.

13. Он прожил долгую жизнь, полную приключений.

14. Французы любят проводить отпуск в деревне или на побережье.

15. У вас есть шампунь для сухих волос?

16. Я провел бессонную ночь и встал с сильной головной болью.



16. The Use of Articles in Set Expressions (1)


Exercise 16.1. Study the rule. 

 The article is not used in the following adverbial patterns in which the same noun is repeated

  • after the preposition by e.g. day by day, step by step
  • after the preposition in e.g. hand in hand
  • after the preposition to e.g. from tree to tree, from word to word, from house to house


 The article is not used with the homogeneous parts of a sentence going in pairs

 e.g. under lock and key, from start to finish


 No article is used with uncountable nouns in common comparisons in the pattern

 as + adjective + as + noun   e.g. as white as snow


 The indefinite article is used with  singular countable nouns in common comparisons in the pattern

 as + adjective + as + noun   e.g. as pretty as a picture 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 16.2. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ day after _____ day things may be very much the same.

2. We work _____ side by _____ side and must trust each other.

3. He read _____ letter slowly, _____ line by _____ line.

4. _____ feather by _____ feather _____ birds build _____ nests.

5. He turned restlessly from _____ side to _____ side, but _____ sleep wouldn’t come.

6. _____ soldiers stood _____ shoulder to _____ shoulder to greet _____ commander.

7. From _____ time to _____ time we went for _____ ride in _____ woods.

8. _____ boy kept grinning from _____ ear to _____ ear.

9. They entered _____ church _____ hand in _____ hand for _____ wedding ceremony.

10. I enjoyed _____ show from _____ start  to _____ finish.

11. _____ iceberg was hidden in _____ water from _____ top to _____ bottom.

12. He is _____ gentleman from _____ head to _____ toe.

13. They threw _____ heart and _____ soul into _____ new project.

14. _____ prisoner was tattooed from _____ elbow to _____ wrist.

15. During _____ war _____ family lived from _____ hand to _____ mouth.

16. He keeps all _____ official papers under _____ lock and _____ key.

17. She would fight for him _____ tooth and _____ nail.

18. She knew _____ rules of _____ business from _____ back to _____ front.

19. We show _____ step by _____ step how you could fit _____ new sink.

20. She went from _____ house to _____ house asking if anyone had seen _____ child.



Exercise 16.3. Match the word combinations. Make up sentences with them.

1) as easy as 6) as plump as 11) as black as
2) as fat as 7) as quiet as 12) as greedy as
3) as cold as 8) as silent as 13) as free as
4) as dead as 9) as tough as 14) as cunning as
5) as blind as 10) as soft as 15) as good as


1) _____ bat 6) _____ gold 11) _____ pitch
2) _____ doornail 7) _____ ABC 12) _____ partridge
3) _____ fox 8) _____ grave 13) _____ leather
4) _____ bird 9) _____ pig 14) _____ butter
5) _____ lamb 10) _____ charity 15) _____ soot



Exercise 16.4. Finish up the sentences.

1. She is as happy as _______________. 8. He was as ugly as _______________.
2. He sleeps like _______________. 9. She was as white as _______________.
3. It was as safe as _______________. 10. He was as slow as _______________.
4. She was as pretty as _______________. 11. He is as brave as _______________.
5. He was as busy as _______________. 12. He is as obstinate as _______________.
6. It was as hard as _______________. 13. It is as old as _______________.
7. It was as heavy as _______________. 14. It was as light as _______________. 



Exercise 16.5. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Он живет по принципу – око за око, зуб за зуб.

2. Шаг за шагом мы продвигались к цели.

3. Мы промокли с головы до ног.

4. Книга такая интересная, что я прочитал ее от корки до корки.

5. Они встречали все трудности плечом к плечу.

6. Она держит деньги и ценные вещи под замком.

7. Они неразлучны, словно рука и перчатка.

8. Они бедны и живут впроголодь.

9. Он в ужасе стоял на тротуаре и дрожал с головы до ног.

10. Хотя эта история и стара как мир, я хотел бы ее послушать еще раз.

11. У нее большая семья, и утра до вечера она крутится как белка в колесе.

12. Он построил дом, который был надежен как крепость.

13. День ото дня погода становилась лучше.

14. Эти двое никогда не встречались лицом к лицу.

15. Они вошли в церковь рука об руку.



17. The Use of Articles in Set Expressions (2)


Practice Activities.


Exercise 17.1. Sort out the following phrases into 3 columns depending on the article used in them. Check up the usage of the articles in the dictionary. Translate the following word combinations. 

 No article

 A/ an


 in addition to




1) in _____ addition to 11) in _____ danger of 21) in _____ hurry
2) in _____ advance 12) in _____ distance 22) in _____ length (width)
3) in _____ agreement with 13) in _____ draw 23) in _____ limelight
4) in _____ horror 14) in _____ exchange for 24) in _____ memory of
5) in _____ bloom (blossom) 15) in _____ favour of 25) in _____ need of
6) in _____ case of 16) in _____ flesh 26) in _____ place of
7) in _____ common with 17) in _____ haste 27) in (with) _____ reference to
8) in _____ comparison with 18) in _____ good (bad) health 28) in _____ row
9) in _____ control of 19) in _____ honour of 29) in _____ search of
10) in _____ charge of 20) in _____ hope of 30) in _____ secret



Exercise 17.2. Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases from ex. 17.1.

1. Who is _______________ the club’s finances? 9. I called early _______________ catching her before she went to work.
2. The daffodils were in _______________. 10. The letter had been clearly written _______________.
3. She is still not _______________ her emotions. 11. The river is 300 miles _______________.
4. _______________ fire, ring the alarm bell. 12. Seat reservations cost no extra money if you book _______________.
5. The roof is badly _______________ painting. 13. I am writing to you _______________ the job opening in your department.
6. How many factory workers are _______________ losing their jobs? 14. They were close personal friends _______________ business partners.
7. We had to meet _______________. 15. Since «Home Alone», its young star has been permanently _______________.
8. Nobody has won the championship more than three times _________________.  



Exercise 17.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. I am all in _____ favour of _____ equal pay for _____ equal work.

2. _____ crowd cried out in _____ horror as _____ car burst into _____ flames.

3. You can use _____ milk in _____ place of _____ cream in this recipe.

4. There was _____ ceremony held in _____ honour of those killed in _____ explosion.

5. She went into _____ kitchen in _____ search of _____ drink.

6. O. J. Simpson is my favourite player. Meeting him in _____ flesh was _____ real thrill.

7. _____ statue was built in _____ memory of all _____ soldiers who died in _____ war.

8. In _____ addition to these arrangements, _____ extra ambulances will be on _____ duty until _____ midnight.

9. _____ tallest buildings in London are small in _____ comparison with _____ New York’s skyscrapers.

10. _____ advantage of booking _____ tickets in _____ advance is that you get _____ better seats.

11. _____ leader of _____ Opposition is in ____ danger of losing her seat at _____ next election.

12. Britain, in _____ common with many other industrialized countries, has experienced _____ great changes over _____ last 50 years.

13. Although _____ two countries appeared to be in _____ agreement on _____ need for more talks, no date was set.



Exercise 17.4. Sort out the following phrases into 3 columns depending on the article used in them. Check up the usage of the articles in the dictionary. Translate the following word combinations.

 No article

 A/ an


  in sight 




1. in _____ sight 11. in _____ aid of 21. off _____ limits
2. in _____ surprise 12. in _____ demand 22. off _____ record
3. in _____ full swing 13. in _____ due course 23. out of _____ ordinary
4. in _____ good (bad) taste 14. in(to) _____ open 24. out of _____ question
5. in _____ good (bad) temper (mood) 15. in _____ original 25. under _____ weather
6. in _____ good time 16. in _____ detail 26. under _____ threat
7. in _____ view of 17. in _____ vain 27. under _____ weight
8. in _____ uniform 18. in _____ mood for 28. under _____ age
9. in _____ whisper 19. in _____ nutshell 29. under _____ discussion
10. in _____ long run 20. in _____ other words  



Exercise 17.5. Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases from ex. 17.4.

1. They asked him to leave – _______________, he was fired. 9. Good secretaries are always _______________.
2. The room was furnished _______________. 10. She had summed up his immediate task _______________.
3. He looked up the street but there was no one _______________. 11. The plans for her wedding are still _______________.
4. When we arrived the party was _______________. 12. Tim has read Homer in _______________.
5. We're collecting money _______________ cancer research. 13. She never let her dislike for him come out _______________.
6. We really felt ________________ for a party. 14. Anything _______________ made her nervous.
7. Further details will be announced in _______________. 15. You can't go in that old shirt – it's_______________.
8. Moving to Spain will be better for you _______________.  



Exercise 17.6. Insert the proper articles.

1. Ben arrived in _____ good time for _____ dinner.

2. This issue will be discussed in _____ detail    in _____ Chapter 5.

3. She couldn't apply for _____ passport as she was under _____ age.

4. _____ tax only affects _____ people on incomes of over $200,000 – in _____other words, _____ very rich.

5. _____ measures introduced by _____ government mean _____ higher taxes in _____ long run.

6. In _____ view of _____ weather _____ event will be held indoors.

7. _____ building was surrounded by _____ soldiers in _____ uniform.

8. Some buildings collapsed under _____ weight of _____ ash from _____ volcano.

9. _____ program is under _____ threat of _____ closure due to _____ lack of funding.

10. _____ footpaths along  _____ coast are, of course, off _____ limits to _____ bikers.

11. _____ police have spent _____ hours searching in _____ vain for _____ missing teenager.

12. There are _____ certain things in _____ life that might seem out of _____ ordinary.

13. I began to feel under _____ weather on _____ Thursday morning after leaving _____ school.

14. _____ size of _____ building when they came in _____ sight of it made his eyes widen in _____ surprise.



Exercise 17.7. Sort out the following phrases into 3 columns depending on the article used in them. Check up the usage of the articles in the dictionary. Translate the following word combinations. 

 No article

 A/ an


 on account of 




1) on _____ account of 12) on _____ one hand, on _____ other hand 23) on _____ offer
2) on _____ agenda 13) on _____ horseback 24) without _____ delay
3) on _____ arrival 14) on _____ increase 25) without _____ fail
4) on _____ average 15) on _____ leave 26) without (with) _____ regard to
5) on ______ behalf of 16) on ______ news 27) without _____ success
6) on _____ board 17) on _____ purpose 28) with (without) _____ good cause
7) on _____ condition 18) on _____ safe side 29) without _____ warning
8) on _____ diet 19) on ______ spot 30) with _____ view to
9) on _____ dole 20) on _____ strike 31) on _____ second thoughts
10) on _____ duty 21) on _____ top of everything  
11) on _____ edge 22) on _____ trail of  



Exercise 17.8. Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases from ex. 17.7.

1. I took some extra cash to be _______________.  9. Report the accident to the police _______________.
2. He retired early _____ ill health__________. 10. _______________ parents spend $200 a year on toys.
3. He has been _______________ for a year. 11. _______________ everything, my car has been stolen.
4. I want you to be here by two _______________. 12. The government has to admit that homelessness is _______________.
5. They got married while he was _______________ from the army. 13. _______________ at the police station, they were taken to an interview room.
6. He did it _______________, knowing it would annoy her. 14. You can be sacked _______________ for stealing.
7. I’ve put on some weight so I’m going _______________, starting next week. 15. He was decisive and never wasted time _______________.
8. Have the passengers gone _______________ the plane yet?  



Exercise 17.9. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ guests receive _____ dinner on _____ arrival at _____ hotel.

2. _____ Italian wines are on _____ special offer this week.\

3. 400 people _____ year die of this disease on _____ average.

4. _____ police are still on _____ trail of _____ escaped prisoner.

5. For _____ government, _____ education is now at _____ top of _____ agenda.

6. There were _____ hundred police officers on _____ duty at _____ football match.

7. He was driving without _____ regard to _____ speed limits.

8. _____ children seem to exist on _____ diet of _____ burgers and _____ chips.

9. She was always on _____ edge before _____ interview.

10. He was arrested without _____ warning and taken to _____ Secret Police Headquarters.

11. They saw _____ soldier on _____ horseback in _____ distance.

12. _____ air traffic controllers are threatening to come out on _____ strike.

13. They will give us _____ money on _____ condition that we pay back in six months.

14. If you child is absent from _____ school without _____ good cause, you may receive _____ warning from _____ school board.

15. _____ buyer of _____ painting was saying that he was acting on _____ behalf of _____ unnamed Japanese collector.

16. On _____ one hand they would like to have _____ children, on _____ other they don’t want to give up _____ freedom.



Exercise 17.10. Sort out the following phrases into 3 columns depending on the article used in them. Check up the usage of the articles in the dictionary. Translate the following word combinations. 

 No article

 A/ an


 at all costs 




1) at all _____ costs 12) at _____ profit 23) for _____ time being
2) at _____  cost of 13) at _____ random

24) by _____ accident

3) at _____  depth of 14) for _____ change 25) by _____ appointment
4) at _____  speed of 15) for _____ fear of 26) by _____ birth
5) at _____  fault 16) for _____ granted 27) by _____ chance
6) at _____ first hand 17) for _____ fun 28) by _____ heart
7) at _____ first sight 18) for _____ hire 29) by _____ invitation
8) at _____ half price 19) for _____ instance 30) by _____ means of
9) at _____ hand 20) for _____ laugh 31) by _____ profession
10) at _____ heart 21) for _____ rest 32) by _____ surprise
11) at _____ loss 22) for _____ sake of  



Exercise 17.11. Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases from ex. 17.10.

1. We believed that help was ______________. 9. You can leave your suitcase here ________________.
2. He is still a communist _______________. 10. Security during the president's visit must be maintained _______________.
3. We should be able to sell the house _______________. 11. I didn't want to move _______________ of waking her up.
4. You can see the bank manager ______________ only. 12. I just took it _______________ that he’d always be around.
5. Ann was French _______________ but lived most of her life in Italy. 13. Many items in this shop go at _______________.
6. She opened the book _______________ and started to read. 14. He was travelling at _______________ 90 mph.
7. Just _______________, I pretended that I'd forgotten it was his birthday 15. I'm _____________ to know how I can help you.
8. I decided to learn Spanish just _______________.  



Exercise 17.12. Insert the proper articles.

1. Her doctor was at _____ fault for not sending her straight to _____ specialist

2. We spoke quietly for _____ fear of waking _____ guards.

3. In _____ electronics industry, for _____ instance, 5000 jobs are being lost.

4. Their parents only stayed together for _____ sake of _____ children.

5. His comments left me at _____ loss for _____ words

6. You must stop _____ press from finding out at all _____ costs.

7. _____ entrance to _____ Easter Ball is by _____ invitation only.

8. _____ police took _____ burglars by _____ surprise.

9. _____ river froze to _____ depth of over _____ metre.

10. I think _____ owners are at _____ fault for not warning us about _____ power cut.

11. _____ load was lifted by _____ means of _____ crane.

12. I met _____ old friend of mine at _____ airport quite by _____ chance.

13. _____ book contains some interesting passages about _____ authors’ childhood but for _____ rest it is extremely dull.

14. Living in _____ village, I learned at _____ first hand how these people suffer from _____ poverty.

15. One of _____ problems with _____ relationships is that after _____ while you just take each other for _____ granted.



18. The Use of Articles in Set Expressions (3)


Practice Activities.


Exercise 18.1. Translate the following word combinations. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word combination from given above. 






 a chat,

 a bite, 

 a good laugh,

 a fuss,

 a rest,

 a good sleep,

 a smoke,

 a snack,

 a swim,

 a talk,

 a win,

 a start,

 a go,

 a nap

 a fuss,

 a mess,

 a run,

 a will

 a wink of sleep

 a hand,

 a hint,

 a lift,

 a start,

 a push, support

 for a walk, on a ride,

 for a sail,

 for a drive


1. What about having __________?  14. The siren of a police car made me give __________. 
2. I asked her if we could meet to have __________.  15. He offered them to give __________ with advice and money. 
3. We are going to have __________ about the improvements in the hospital.  16. I am sorry for making such __________ about the noise. 
4. Steve is a heavy smoker, he goes out every hour to have __________.  17. The kids made __________ in the bathroom. 
5. Every morning before breakfast he had __________.  18. He gave __________ that he was thinking of retiring. 
6. He called the lawyer as he wished to make __________.  19. I’ll give you __________ to the station. 
7. Would you like to have __________ after dinner?  20. I offered to give them __________ but they did all the decorating themselves. 
8. You’ll feel better after __________.  21. She made __________ over a little lump of mud on the carpet. 
9. Our football team hasn’t had __________ so far this season.  22. I went for _____ horse __________ last Saturday. 
10. Let’s go to the Chinese buffet and have __________ before the film.  23. They are planning to go for _____ two-day __________ to the nearest island. 
11. I decided to make __________ for the bus.  24. Shall we make __________ on the work? 
12. I didn’t get __________ last night.  25. They had to give the car __________ to start it. 
13. Shall we go for __________ this afternoon?  26. I'll have _____ at repairing the roof myself. 



Exercise 18.2. Insert the proper articles, check up the usage of the articles in the dictionary, translate the phrases in italics.

1. It was _____ relief to talk to someone about it.

2. I have established _____ good working relationship with my boss.

3. I can never tell _____ difference between _____ butter and _____ margarine.

4. Why do I always get _____ blame for everything that goes wrong?

5. _____ people who are overweight run _____ risk of _____ heart attack or stroke.

6. She woke up with _____ raging thirst and _____ headache.

7. There is _____ urgent need for _____ qualified teachers.

8. She woke up from _____ dream with _____ start.

9. Do you want _____ hand with those papers?

10. I had _____ considerable difficulty in persuading her to leave.

11. Our host shook each of us warmly by _____ hand.

12. Being tall could give him _____ advantage over _____ other players.

13. As _____ child, she had _____ great fear of spiders.

14. She said she wanted _____ dog but that was only _____ passing fancy.

15. _____ English have _____ passion for _____ gardens.

16. She flies into _____ passion even if anyone ever mentions his name.

17. _____ water holds _____ fascination for _____ most children.

18. He has _____ irritating habit of biting his nails.

19. She soon acquired _____ reputation as _____ first-class cook.

20. In _____ normal run of things _____ only exercise he gets is climbing in and out of _____ taxis.



Exercise 3. Insert the proper articles. 

1.  (1)_____ story shows how (2)_____ plans can go wrong and how (3)_____ people can make (4)_____ silly mistakes. (5)_____ scene was (6)_____ old people's home in Otley, (7)_____ small town in England. (8)_____ owner of (9)_____ home wanted to put (10)_____ fence around it. (11)_____ work began soon after (12)_____ Christmas when (13)_____ workmen arrived in (14)_____ lorry with (15)_____ planks of wood which they put up around (16)_____ building. (17)_____ owner liked (18)_____ fence. But there was (19)_____ problem. (20)_____ workmen forgot to leave (21)_____ gap for (22)_____ lorry to drive out through. They had to come back (23)_____ next day to knock down (24)_____ part of (25)_____ fence.

2. If you have (1)_____ interview for (2)_____ office job, do some «homework» before you go. Visit (3)_____ company a few days in (4)_____ advance of (5)_____ date set, get (6)… feel of (7)_____ atmosphere and talk to as many of (8)_____ staff as you can. Find out what they think of (9)_____ place, (10)_____ people and (11)_____ pay. If it turns out that a lot of (12)_____ employees are unhappy look for (13)_____ work elsewhere. On (14)_____ day of (15)_____ interview, dress like (16)_____ people you saw at (17)_____ company. You should aim to impress (18)_____ interviewer by looking smart, but without overdressing – or wearing (19)_____ clothes that are too casual, either.

3. I felt really rotten at (1)_____ work (2)_____ other day so I went into (3)_____ stockroom for (4)_____ nap – I though I’d felt better after (5)_____ good sleep. Unfortunately, my boss, who has (6)_____ deep distrust of (7)_____ most of his employees as well as (8)_____ history of suddenly firing his workers, decided there was some work he needed me to do urgently. My colleagues told him I’d been called out – lying is sometimes (9)_____  necessary evil – but he had (10)_____ better knowledge of (11)_____ situation than they realized, and I was summoned to his office. I thought he would him me (12)_____ hard time but she showed (13)_____ tolerance that surprised me. Even so, it was (14)_____ experience I wouldn’t want to repeat.



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles, check up the usage of the articles in the dictionary.

1. It’s _____ priceless advice, it comes from _____ heart.

2. Do _____ people in Italy shake _____ hands when they meet?

3. It was _____ winter at last and _____cool breeze blew _____ night.

4. My wife has had _____ great love for _____ animals.

5. _____ most people have _____ horror of speaking in _____ public.

6. _____ lady talked _____  bad French at _____ top of her voice.

7. _____ students whom she teaches make _____ good progress.

8. _____ fruit and vegetables form _____ essential part of _____ healthy diet.

9. She could hear _____ wind whistling through _____ trees outside.

10. _____ pictures can help _____ students learn _____ meaning of _____ new words.

11. _____ disease could have killed off _____ half _____ population of _____ country.

12. _____ reading _____ novel is _____ good way to relax.

13. _____ good cyclist can cover _____ distance of over _____ hundred miles _____ hour.

14. You’ve made _____ mistake in _____ third paragraph, in _____ sentence eight.

15. Isn’t it _____ time to make _____ break and have _____ snack? - All right, in half _____ hour.

16. I always pass on _____ good advice. It is _____ only thing to do with it. It is never any use to anyone.

17. There was _____ serious fire in ______ block of flats in Glasgow last night. _____ building was totally destroyed.

18. _____ men are more likely to lend _____ hand with _____ housework now than they were a few years ago.

19. Remember that as _____ teenager you are at _____ last stage in your life when you will be happy to hear _____ phone is for you.

20. _____ reference books can only be consulted in _____ library. You must obtain _____ special permission to use them outside _____ library.

21. _____ candidates are allowed to take _____ dictionary into _____ exam, but they can’t take in _____ grammar book.  

22. I spent _____ half my time teaching _____ law and ______ other half in London as ______ consultant to _____ big firm.

23. It was _____ quarter to three when ______ telephone rang. Mr. Morley was sitting on _____ sofa, happily digesting _____ excellent lunch. He did not move when _____ bell rang but waited George to come and take ______ call.

24. I had _____ hard time getting to _____ work ______ other day. _____ police were blocking off _____ main roads after _____ accident. On _____ radio, _____ local traffic news was talking about _____ complete chaos on _____ roads everywhere.

25. Like _____ most Englishmen my friend is fond of talking about _____ weather, but he understands that _____ English way of talking about _____ weather seems rather funny to _____ foreigner. Though _____ English people often complain about _____ weather, they have _____ reasonable climate on ______ whole.



Exercise 2. Choose the proper article and translate the word combinations.

1) make _____ room a) мешать 
2) have _____ good knowledge b) давать показания 
3) make _____ nuisance of oneself c) хорошо зарабатывать на жизнь 
4) reach _____ agreement d) достичь соглашения 
5) make _____ good living e) наводить порядок 
6) clear up _____ mess f) получить разрешение 
7) give _____ evidence g) делать успехи 
8) take _____ pride h) прийти к соглашению 
9) speak to _____ point i) освободить место 
10) tell _____ difference j) говорить по существу 
11) make _____ progress k) принимать близко к сердцу 
12) get _____ permission l) иметь хорошие знания 
13) take close to _____ heart m) обижаться 
14) take _____ offence n) быть успешным 
15) be _____ success o) гордиться 
16) come to _____ agreement p) различать 
17) stand in _____ way  q) досаждать, надоедать 



Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the proper articles and translation of the words in brackets.

1. She (воспользовалась)____________________ of _____ children’s absence to tidy their room.

2. We don’t want (рисковать)____________________ of losing our business.

3. She didn’t even (потрудилась)____________________ to find out how to spell my name.

4. He could tell (сразу же)____________________ what was wrong.

5. (На первый взгляд)____________________ _____ problem seemed easy.

6. (Вдруг)_____________________ someone grabbed me around _____ neck.

7. It was (облегчением)____________________ to know that she was safe.

8. It’s (стыдно)____________________ that he isn’t here to see it.

9. It’s (чудо)____________________ that more people were not hurt.

10. What do you (зарабатываешь на жизнь)____________________?

11. He was determined to (преуспеть)____________________ of his business.

12. I don’t want to (надоедать)____________________ so tell me if you want to be alone.

13. She watched him go with (с тяжелым сердцем)____________________.\

14. He (впадает в ярость)___________________ when you even mention _____ subject.

15. I agree with you to (определенной степени)____________________.

16. Even _____ most critical reviewer couldn’t (придраться)__________ with her performance.

17. I was asked to (дать показания)____________________ at _____ trial.

18. You must (попросить разрешения)____________________ for all major expenses. 

19. How can we (освободить место____________________ for all _____ furniture?

20. Don't mention her style. She'll probably (обидится)____________________. 




Exercise 1. Choose the best alternative.

1. In 1666 there was _____ fire which destroyed _____ large part of London.

1) a, a    2) the, a    3) the, the    4) a, the

2. We developed _____ passion for _____ Baroque music at university.  

1) the, a    2) a, –    3) a, the    4) a, a

3. Grandpa loves it when _____ children ask for his advice.

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

4. John Hinkley had been in _____ German prison for eight months.

1) a    2) the    3) –    4) an

5. When I finish _____ course next year, I'll be able to speak _____ perfect French.

1) a, the    2) the, the    3) the, –    4) a,  –

6. _____ people can't smoke on _____ British Airways flights. It’s forbidden.

1) – ,  –    2) the, the    3) –, the    4) the, –

7. _____ health care need of _____ disabled is one of the major problems for many countries.

1) the, the    2) the, –    3) –, the    4) – ,  –

8. They are doing … experiments on … animals that are alive.

1) –,  –    2) the, the    3) –, the    4) the, –

9. _____ Asthma Helpline will be able to give you ____ advice on your health.

1) the, –    2) the, the    3) –,  an    4) –, the

10. Bread and butter is eaten with _____ meals by _____ most people in the north of England.

1) –, –    2) the, –    3) the, –    4) the, the

11. _____ elderly people have _____ difficulty in remembering what has happened only a few hours before.

1) –, a    2) the, –    3) –, –    4) the, the

12. _____ never-ending care of the nurses in _____ hospital helped my father overcome cancer.

1) the, the    2) –, the    3) –, –    4) the, a

13. _____ jackets which this shop makes are of _____ excellent quality.

1) –, an    2) the, an    3) the, –    4) –, –

14. Though the house may appear ideal at _____ first sight, be sure to have _____ full survey.

1) –, a    2) the, a    3) the, –    4) a, a

15. _____ swimming provides _____ exercise for more muscle groups than any other physical activities.

1) the, an    2) the, –    3) –, –    4) –, an

16. _____ north wind always brings _____ snow with it at this time of year.

1) a, the    2) the, –    3) –, –    4) a, –

17. The ship was making _____ slow progress through _____ rough sea.

1) a, the    2) –, the    3) –, –    4) a, a

18. _____ charge for _____ excess luggage is $10 a kilo.

1) the, –    2) –, an    3) –, –    4) –, the    

19. Catching _____ sight of her he broke into _____ run.

1) –, –    2) the, a    3) a, –    4) –, a

20. _____ exercise and _____ well-balanced diet keeps you fit and healthy.

1) an, a    2) –, –    3) an, –    4) –, a

21. Her lawyer made _____ statement outside _____ court.

1) a, –    2) a, the    3) –, a    4) the, the

22. When he was charged with _____ murder he said he had _____ alibi.

1) –, the    2) an, the    3) –, an    4) the, the

23. _____ patient is making _____ slow progress after her operation.

1) the, the    2) a, –    3) the, –    4) a, the

24. I’ve told you _____ hundred times not to enter _____ room with _____ hat on.

1) –, a, a    2) a, the, a    3) the, the, a    4) a, a, a

25. They must have _____ third game to decide who is _____ real winner.

1) the, the    2) the, a    3) a, a    4) a, the



Exercise 2. Correct any possible mistakes.

1. I’m reading an interesting book at the moment. It’s about the life of Nelson Mandela when he was in prison.

2. You may now open an examination paper. Write your name and date at the top of the page.

3. I don’t go to church. In fact, I’ve only been inside a church once, when I went to Russia.

4. Many of cities in the United States suffer from crime. The police should be given money they need to deal with the problem.

5. The organization’s aim is to educate public about dangers of smoking.

6. She has worked in fashion industry since she left school.

7. The wind is blowing dust all the way from Africa.

8. The USA is a country with a high level of inflation.

9. She has become an important figure in Norwegian politics.

10. English has become international language.



Exercise 3. Translate the following expressions from Russian into English and insert the proper articles.

1. She has (плохая память)____________________ for _____ dates.

2. They fell in _____ love (с первого взгляда)____________________.

3. She seemed to (быть растерянной)____________________ when I said that she was to blame for his death.

4. I could see (сразу же)___________________ that he was _____ man of great taste.

5. She took _____ news (близко к сердцу)____________________.

6. We delayed our departure (по причине)____________________ of _____ bad weather.

7. _____ legal guardian must act (от имени)____________________ of _____ child.

8. (По прибытии)___________________ at _____ hotel please wait for _____ further instructions.

9. She was (в нервном напряжении)___________________ until she heard he was safe.

10. He didn’t even (потрудился)___________________ to write her ____ letter or send _____ e-mail.

11. _____ principal gave Sammy (разрешение)___________________ to leave _____ school early that day.

12. There is little chance of _____ two countries coming to (соглашению)____________________.

13. Hopefully she will be in (лучшем настроении)____________________ tomorrow.

14. _____ noise of his stereo (надоедал)____________________ to _____ neighbours.

15. _____ money I earn isn't enough to (жить богато)___________________.

16. He (не достиг успеха)___________________ as _____ businessman.

17. _____ other boys all ran away, and Billy (обвинили)____________________ for _____ accident.

18. Could you (намекнуть)___________________ me why she (устроила такой шум)___________________?

19. _____ child (испытывал большую трудность)___________________ breathing.

20. Donald’s proposal of _____ marriage took her (врасплох)__________________.

21. My sister has (плохой вкус)____________________. Have you seen _____ pink curtains and _____ orange carpet in her flat?

22. Jumping out of _____ plane at ten thousand feet is (прекрасное приключение)___________________.

23. He refused to climb _____ ladder as he suffered frоm (боязни высоты)___________________.

24. _____ children made (костер)__________________, told each other interesting stories and (хорошо посмеялись)____________________.

25. It was (большим облегчением)____________________ to know that _____ children got _____ home safely.

26. _____ successful companies know _____ importance of establishing (хорошего отношения)____________________ with their customers.

27. _____ men (подвергаются большему риску)___________________ of dying from _____ heart attack than _____ women.

28. _____ ex-policeman’s knowledge (давало ему преимущество)____________________ over _____ other people training to be _____ lawyers.

29. I think they’ve done it (намеренно)____________________ to avoid paying me _____ money they owe me.

30. We bought _____ cottage (с намерением)___________________ setting down there after _____ retirement.

31. In many cases of _____ children’s bad behaviour it is _____ parents who are really (виноваты)____________________.

32. (В случае крайней необходимости)____________________, dial 911 for _____ police, _____ fire department or _____ ambulance.

33. Grace had been on _____ holiday in Jamaica and she came back with (красивым загаром)________________.

34. Some of these liberated women are quick to (обидеться)___________________ if _____ man holds _____ door open to them.

35. (С одной стороны)____________________ they were pleased that their young friend had (достиг больших успехов)_____________________, and (с другой стороны)____________________ a little shocked.



19. The Use of Articles with Geographical Names (1)


Exercise 19.1. Study the rule. 

 No Article.

 The Definite Article.

 1. No article is used with the names of continents.

 e.g.  Africa, Europe, North America

 No article is used either when names

 of continents are modified by such attributes as northern, southern, western, eastern, central, minor, Latin

 e.g. Northern Europe, Central Africa 

 1. The Arctic and the Antarctic are used with the as they denote the regions (the land and the sea) round the North and the South Poles.


 2. Most countries, states, provinces and counties are used with no article.

 e.g.  Portugal, Florida, Sussex

 No article is used either when these

 nouns have such attributes as north(ern), south(ern), west(ern), east(ern), ancient, old, central.

 e.g. Old England, Ancient Greece 

 2. Names of the countries with words like republic, federation, emirate, kingdom, state have the.

      Plural names also have the.

 e.g. the Irish Republic, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands, the Philippines


 3. Regions ending with the names of a continent or country are with no article.

 e.g. South Wales, Western Australia


 3. Most other regions have the.

 e.g. the West, the Middle East, the Far East

      Some names are traditionally used with the.

 e.g. the Crimea, the Ruhr, the Tyrol, the Riviera, the Transvaal.

      Phrases with of have the.

 e.g. the South of France 

 4. Separate mountains have no article.

 e.g. Mont Blanc, Mount Everest


 4. Mountain ranges and hill ranges have the.

 e.g. the Alps, the Rockies

 The names of mountain passes are used with the.

 e.g. the Saint Gotthard Pass 

 5. Separate islands have no article.

 e.g. Rhode Island, Cyprus

 The names of peninsulas and horn have no article if the name is used alone.

 e.g. Indo-China, Hindustan, Cape Horn

 5. Groups of islands are used with the.

 e.g.  the Canary Islands, the Bermudas

 The names of peninsulas are used with the if the word peninsula is mentioned.

 e.g. the Balkan Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula 


 6. The names of deserts are used with the.

 e.g. the Sahara 

 7. The names of lakes and waterfalls are used with no article.

 e.g. Lake Michigan, Niagara Falls

 The names of bays generally have no article.

 e.g. Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay


 7. The names of oceans, seas, rivers, canals, straits have the.

 e.g. the Atlantic Ocean,  the Mediterranean Sea, the River Thames, the Suez Canal, the Magellan Strait, the Bosporus,

 8. Cities, towns and villages are used with no article.

 e.g. Paris, Leeds 

 8. The only exception is the Hague


 9. The definite article is used in the following patterns containing the preposition of.

 e.g. the Bay of Biscay, the City of New York, the Mount of Olives, the Gulf of Mexico, the Isle of Man 


 10. Names of territories consisting of word combination in which the last word is a common noun are generally used with the.

 e.g. the Lake District, the Yorkshire Forests, the Virgin Lands, the Grand Canyon 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 19.2. Write the headlines of the articles for the travel magazine ‘Holiday’.

1) _____ holiday/ in/ _____ Bahamas 6) _____ journey/ across/ _____ Rockies
2) _____train journey/ in/ _____ North Wales 7) _____ boat trip/ along/ _____ Oxford Canal
3) _____voyage/ across/ _____ Mediterranean 8) _____ sightseeing/ in/ _____ Hague
4) _____ beach/on/ _____ Riviera 9) _____ scenery/ of/ _____ Isle of Man
5) _____walk/ around/ _____Lake Windermere 10) _____ view/ of/ _____ Grand Canyon



Exercise 19.3. Complete the sentences with the geographical names from the list Andes, Brussels, Irish Republic, Lake Michigan, River Nile, Pennsylvania, Tasmania, United Kingdom, West Indies, South America, Italy; add the proper articles.

1. _____ Harrisburg is the capital of _______________.

2. _____ Dublin is in _______________.

3. _____ Chicago lies on the shore of _______________.

4. _____Sicily is a part of _______________.

5. _______________ are a mountain range in _______________.

6. _______________ is England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

7. _______________ is an island to _____ south of Australia.

8. _____ Jamaica is an island in _______________.

9. _______________ flows through _____ Egypt.

10. _______________ is the capital of _____ Belgium.



Exercise 19.4. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ Amazon in _____ Brazil is _____ longest river in _____ South America.

2. _____ Japan and _____ United States are separated by _____ Pacific Ocean.

3. We visited _____ Lake Victoria, it is in _____ East Africa.

4. _____ people who live in _____ Netherlands are called _____ Dutch.

5. Fergusson has traveled everywhere from _____ Central Asia to _____ Arctic.

6. Karl was born in _____ Bavaria, but now he lives in _____ Ohio.

7. A lot of people have tried to cross _____ Sahara without being properly prepared.

8. I’ve been climbing in _____ Alps, but I’ve never managed to get up _____ Mont Blanc.

9. I’d love to travel down _____ Nile as far as _____ Luxor.

10. There is _____ splendid view of _____ Lake Geneva from this hotel.

11. I have noticed that _____ English people do not seem to shake _____ hands as much as people do on _____ Continent.

12. He pointed to _____ Costa Rica as _____ example of _____ country with _____ high literacy.

13. I would like to go to _____ Jamaica, _____ Bahamas or somewhere else in _____ Caribbean.

14. _____ Lake Windermere in _____ north-west of England is one of _____ largest lakes in _____ British Isles.

15. I’d love to do _____ tour of _____ European capitals and visit _____ Vienna, _____ Berlin and _____ Hague.

16. _____ Suez Canal flows through _____ north of Egypt from _____ Port Said to _____ Suez, joining _____ Mediterranean to _____ Gulf of Suez and _____ Red Sea.

17. They joined _____ army at _____ same time. After _____ war, they met quite by _____ accident when they were both on _____ leave in _____ Cyprus.

18. _____ Mount Everest is in _____ Himalayas on _____ border between _____ Nepal and _____ Tibet, which is _____ part of _____ People’s Republic of China.

19. You know what _____ business travel is: up at _____ dawn to catch _____ plane, … breakfast in _____ Brussels, _____ lunch in _____ New York, _____ luggage in _____ Bermuda. When you are in _____ sky, you see only _____ snow in _____ Arctic or _____ Greenland. You have _____ glimpses of _____ Andes or _____ Pacific.

20. _____ Channel Islands are _____ group of _____ islands in _____ English Channel near _____ north-western coast of … France. They have belonged to _____ Britain since _____ Normans arrived in _____ 11th century, although they are not _____ part of _____ United Kingdom.



20. The Use of Articles with Geographical Names (2)


Exercise20.1. Study the rule. 

 No Article.

 The Definite Article.

 1. Names of roads, streets, squares and parks take no article.

 e.g. Morden Road, Oxford Street, Fifth Avenue, Berkeley Square, Central Park


 1. There are some exceptions.

 e.g. The High Street, the Avenue, the Strand, the Mall, the Bronx, the West End, the East End

     Main roads and numbered roads take the.

 e.g. the Bath Road, the A5.


     Some parks are used with the.

 e.g. the Snowdonia National Park, the Botanical Gardens 

 2. Names of airports and railway stations take no article.

 e.g.  Waterloo Station, London Airport 


 3. We do not use the with most religious, educational and official buildings or with palaces and houses.

 e.g.  St Mary’s Church, Harvard University, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey 

 3. Exceptions are names with of or with a noun or adjective.

 e.g. the University of York, the Palace of  Westminster, the White House, the Tower, the Old Bailey 


 4. A possessive form (’s) is used with no article.

 e.g. Durrant’s Hotel, McDonald’s


 Names of shops and banks are used with no article.

 e.g. Harrods, Selfridges, Lloyds Bank

 but: the City Bank, the Midland Bank.

 4. Names of hotels, clubs, museums, picture galleries, concert halls, theatres, cinemas, monuments, cafes and restaurants take the.

 e.g. the Dorchester Hotel, the Rotary Club, the Science Museum, the Tate Gallery, the Carnegie Hall,  the Globe Theatre, the Odeon Cinema, the Lincoln Memorial,  the Studio Cafe


 5. Most bridges are without the.

 e.g. Tower Bridge

 5. There are some exceptions.

 e.g. the Golden Gate Bridge, the Severn Bridge, the Brooklyn Bridge 



 6. Names of ships and boats take the.

 e.g. the Titanic, the Queen Mary 

 7. Names of magazines and journals take no article.

 e.g. National Geographic, Wall Street Journal

 7. Names of newspapers take the.

 e.g. the Times, the Economist 

 8. The is not used in front of abbreviations representing the names of institutions when we can say them as single words.

 e.g. We are members of UNESCO.

 8. The is used in front of abbreviations representing the names of institutions when we can’t say them as single words.

 e.g. I listen to the news on the BBC.



Practice Activities.


Exercise 20.2. Write the headlines of the articles for the travel magazine ‘Holiday’.

1) _____ walk/ along/ _____ Prince’s Street 6) _____ walk/ across/ _____ Severn Bridge
2) _____ day/ at/ _____ Blenheim Palace 7) _____ look/ around/ _____ National Gallery
3) _____ tour/ of/ _____ White House 8) _____ visit/ to/ _____ Tower Bridge
4) _____ shopping trip/ to/ _____ Harrods 9) _____ view/ from/ _____ Brooklyn Bridge
5) _____ picnic/ in/ _____ St James’ Park 10) _____ first night/ at/ _____ Globe Theatre



Exercise 20.3. Look at the addresses and write the sentences. Supply the geographical names with article if necessary. 

 Useful addresses for visitors to Seaport.

  1. Seaport Bus Station, Queens Road
  2. Grand Theatre, George Street
  3. Odeon Cinema, Avenue
  4. Clarendon Art Gallery, Newton Lane
  5. King Edward College, College Road
  6. St John’s Church, South Street
  7. Webster’s department store, High Street
  8. Bristol Hotel, Westville Way
  9. Lloyds Bank, Berkeley Square
  10. McDonald’s, Princess Street 



Exercise 20.4. Complete the following sentences with proper articles.

1. _____ train to _____ Paris leaves from _____ Waterloo Station. 11. _____ M1 goes north from London.
2. _____ National Theatre is south of _____ river. 12. _____ Ritz is _____ very elegant hotel.
3. What countries belong to _____ NATO? 13. _____ NASA had a setback in 1986.
4. _____ Serpentine is _____ lake in _____ Hyde Park. 14. _____ National Park was opened last week by _____ mayor.
5. You can get to _____ Heathrow Airport by _____ underground. 15. _____ Orly Airport is one of _____ busiest in _____ world.
6. _____ Nelson’s Column is in _____ Trafalgar Square. 16. She bought _____ expensive necklace at _____ Harrods.
7. From there you can get _____ view of _____ Houses of Parliament. 17. _____ supermarket is in _____ High Street opposite _____ Lloyds Bank.
8. _____ EC does a lot of _____ trade with _____ rest of _____ world. 18. They went for _____ stroll in _____ Kensington Gardens.
9. _____ Queen lives at _____ Buckingham Palace. 19. _____ Tate gallery is rather far from _____ Science Museum, so you’d better take _____ bus.
10. _____ Earl’s Court is in _____ West London. 20. We saw many interesting sights in _____ Madrid and we visited _____ Prado Museum and _____ Escorial where _____ King of Spain lives.



Exercise 20.5. Complete the conversation choosing the proper article a/ the/ – .

- We’ve just been to (1)_____ States – to New York.

- Oh, really. I was there at (2)_____ Christmas. Were you on holiday?

- Yes, and we really needed (3)_____ break. It was wonderful. We saw (4)_____ Statue of Liberty, and we walked in (5)_____ Central Park. We did all (6)_____ sights. We spent (7)_____ day in (8)_____ Metropolitan Museum of Art. And we walked along (9)_____ Broadway and around (10)_____ Macy’s department store.

- Where did you stay?

- In (11)_____ small hotel near (12)_____ Washington Square, not far from (13)_____ New York University.

- Last time I was there I stayed at (14)_____ Paramount. It’s (15)_____ nice hotel close to (16)_____ Broadway.



Exercise 20.6. Insert the proper articles.

1. _____ Playhouse is _____ old theatre but it puts on _____ modern plays.

2. We stayed near _____ Grand Canyon for _____ whole week.

3. My brother went to _____ Netherlands on _____ business trip.

4. In many areas of _____ western Europe _____ wolf is nearly extinct.

5. They say that _____ Japanese language is particularly difficult for _____ Europeans.

6. _____ Rock Garden cafe is up way _____ Queen Street, off _____ George Square.

7. Of all _____ countries on _____ continent of _____ North America John has only visited _____ Canada.

8. We always stay at _____ Palace Court Hotel because it is _____ only one with _____ facilities for _____ disabled.

9. _____ Swiss Alps are _____ good place if you like skiing. There is usually plenty of snow in _____ winter months.

10. Robin Hood is _____ legendary hero that _____ children learn about from _____ storybooks. He used to take _____ money from _____ rich and give it to _____ poor.

11. I studied _____ modern history at _____ University. In _____ last year I specialized in _____ history of _____ American Civil War.

12. What can you tell me about _____ history of this town? – Well, I can tell you that _____ Cathedral was begun in ______ twelfth century and it is supposed to be _____ fine example of _____ early Gothic architecture.

13. I have just heard on _____ radio that _____ Bolivian ambassador has asked _____ American government for _____ political asylum.

14. On _____ 31st of December, thousands of people gather in _____ Times Square, New York, to celebrate _____ coming of ______ New Year.

15. Is this _____ book you were telling me about? – Yes, it is about _____ life of _____ Queen Victoria. It is _____ interesting book. It gives _____ wonderful picture of what _____ life was like in _____ Victorian times.



Miscellaneous Practice.


Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles. 

Where shall we go for our summer holidays?

      (1)_____ Europe or (2)_____ Asia or close to home?

We could try (3)_____ Bahamas or maybe (4)_____ Jamaica

Go round  (5)_____ UK, or (6)____ Denmark or (7)_____ Spain.

We could sail (8)_____ Pacific or even (9)_____ Lake Como

Or go down (10)_____ Yangtze as far as (11)_____ Shanghai.

Or maybe we ought to try something exciting

Like climbing (12)_____ Mount Fuji or crossing (13)_____ Alps.

I’ve got a suggestion: what’s wrong with?

We could see (15)_____ Brooklyn Bridge and sit in (16)_____ Times Square,

Watch a movie on (17)_____ Broadway and walk (18)_____ Fifth Avenue.

(19)______ Central Park’s great if the weather stays fine.

Then we’ll pickup a taxi from (20)_____ Grand Central Station

To (21)_____ JFK Airport and catch our flight home.

That’s what I’d like for my summer vacation –

No mountains or beaches but plenty of fun.



Exercise 2.  Insert the proper article.

1. Where are _____ Canaries situated?

2. _____ tunnel was built beneath _____ English Channel.

3. _____ Tasmania is situated in _____ southern hemisphere.

4. _____ rains were moving _____ north from _____ Tyrol.

5. She was going on _____ cruise down _____ Nile.

6. _____ Panama Canal joins _____ Atlantic and _____ Pacific oceans.

7. _____ Severn Bridge is in _____ Wales.

8. _____ Hotel Ascot is situated in _____ central London.

9. Is _____ Mont Blanc in _____ Alps?

10. _____ ecology of _____ Danube delta is under _____ threat.

11. _____ fire at _____ Windsor Castle destroyed all _____ Queen’s paintings.

12. There are _____ British bases in ______ Cyprus.

13. _____ Selfridges is in _____ Oxford Street.

14. _____ Vatican City is one of _____ most beautiful places in _____ Rome.

15. Are _____ Andes higher or lower than _____ Himalayas?

16. _____ Peter’s Bar is situated in _____ Terminal 1 at _____ Heathrow Airport.

17. You’ll find my house if you walk along _____ Green Street and turn right into _____ High Street.

18. What city is _____ capital of _____ Philippines?

19. I am planning to go to _____ Netherlands, I would like to see _____ Hague.

20. _____ Thames isn’t the longest river in _____ Great Britain.

21. _____ weather over _____ Caribbean is said to be worsening every hour.

22. I’ll give up my work if you come for _____ month with me to some small place in _____ Riviera.

23. _____ Golden Gate Bridge has linked _____ San Francisco and _____ Marin Peninsula for 50 years.

24. _____ Mediterranean Sea washes _____ Europe, Asia and _____ northern coast of _____ Africa.

25. Since _____ Middle Ages _____ countries on ______ Balkan Peninsula have been at _____ war with each other.

26. I hope you'll have _____ lovely time and _____ good weather on _____ Sicily\

27. _____ Great Wall of China is said to be _____ only man-made structure seen from _____ space.

28. When we arrived at _____ Manchester Airport, Rachel was waiting for us at _____ arrival gates.

29. If you go to New York, you must visit ______ Central Park and … Guggenheim museum. But do not bother to visit _____ Times Square.

30. If you have _____ good weather, _____ summer in Scotland is beautiful. _____ most people, however, prefer _____ guaranteed sunshine of _____ Mediterranean.

31. Charles Dickens was born in _____ Portsmouth and it’s interesting to visit _____ Charles Dickens’ Museum, so you can see where _____ man lived and died.





Exercise 1. Insert the proper article.

1. Charlie Chaplin was (1)_____ English film actor. He was also (2)_____ director. He did most of his work at (3)_____ USA. Many people consider him (4)_____ greatest comic actor of (5)_____ silent cinema. He appeared in many films as (6)_____ poor man with (7)_____ small moustache and (8)_____ trousers and (9)_____ shoes that were too big for him, causing him to walk in (10)_____ funny way.


2. (1)_____ people sell all kinds of things at (2)_____ flea market. Some vendors sell (3)_____ old jewelry, others sell (4)_____ old wine bottles. You can also buy (5)_____ ordinary dishes, (6)_____ furniture and (7)_____ second-hand clothes. (8)… old glass is interesting as it was blown by (9)… hand. You can save (10)_____ money at (11)_____ flea market, but you can spend a lot, too.


3. (1)_____ fairy tale is (2)_____ story characterized by (3)_____ presence of (4)_____ fantastic figures. (5)_____ fairy tales have existed in (6)_____ oral, picture or even song form ever before (7)_____ people started writing (8)_____ stories. Some of (9)_____ most popular written fairy tales come from (10)_____ Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen. It’s surprising that in many cases (11)_____ stories become much more famous than (12)_____ writers.


4. As (1)_____ young man, Ian taught at (2)_____ Royal Scottish Academy of Drama and Music. Later, he moved to (3)_____   village in (4)_____ Southern Spain. He was asked to help (5)_____ local band in his spare time. At (6)… first (7)_____ players could not distinguish between (8)_____ loudness and (9)_____ length of (10)_____ notes. (11)_____ players were rehearsing for (12)_____ important performance. (13)_____ success attracted (14)_____ first new members for (15)_____ years. So many people wanted to play that Ian founded (16)_____ music school. For (17)_____ most of (18)_____ young people in (19)_____ village, (20)_____ music is now more important than (21)_____ sport.


5. (1)_____ bat may seem (2)_____ ordinary creature, but in fact it’s (3)_____ amazing animal. (4)_____ bat has (5)_____ wings and is (6)_____ only animal capable of (7)_____ true flight. (8)_____ bats are (9)_____ nocturnal animals which become active only at (10)_____ dusk. Many species rely on (11)_____ “radar” system to find their way around. (12)_____ majority of bats survive on (13)_____ diet of insects while (14)_____ others eat (15)_____ fruit. There are two species which eat (16)_____ fish and there are even some bats which eat (17)_____ meat! Some vampire bats take (18)_____ blood from their sleeping victims. These bats may carry (19)_____ deadly disease rabies.


6. Martin King lives in (1)_____ little village on (2)_____ edge of (3)_____ New Forest. He writes (4)_____ books about (5)_____ natural history in (6)_____ general, and about (7)_____ natural history of (8)_____ New Forest in (9)_____  particular. I have bought (10)_____ copy of his latest book, (11)_____ Close Look at (12)_____ Nature. It contains some of (13)_____ finest photographs of (14)_____ wild objects that I have ever seen. Martin’s book deals with (15)_____ wide range of (16)_____ animal species, from (17)______ blackbirds to (18)_____ rare animals like (19)_____ otters.


7. Martin King lives in (1)_____ little village on (2)_____ edge of (3)_____ New Forest. He writes (4)_____ books about (5)_____ natural history in (6)_____ general, and about (7)_____ natural history of (8)_____ New Forest in (9)_____  particular. I have bought (10)_____ copy of his latest book, (11)_____ Close Look at (12)_____ Nature. It contains some of (13)_____ finest photographs of (14)_____ wild objects that I have ever seen. Martin’s book deals with (15)_____ wide range of (16)_____ animal species, from (17)______ blackbirds to (18)_____ rare animals like (19)_____ otters.


8. We have just been to (1)_____ Lake District on (2)_____ holiday.  At first we thought of camping, but then decided to stay in (3)_____ hotels instead. It is (4)_____ wonderful part of England and (5)_____ scenery reminds you of (6)_____ mountainous countries like (7)_____ Switzerland. As (8)_____ matter of fact, we had such (9)______ good time that we decided to have (10)_____ holiday there (11)_____ next year too. We also paid (12)_____ short visit to (13)_____ Scotland. We went to (14)_____ Edinburgh to see (15)_____ usual sights, including (16)_____ Castle and (17)_____ Prince’s Street. Then we spent (18)_____ week in (19)_____ Highlands.


9. (1)______ news was so interesting: (2)_____ Japanese have invented (3)_____ new electronic toy, (4)_____ British airplane was hijacked to (5)_____ Arab Emirates by (6)_____ band of (7)_____ terrorists; (8)_____ Dutch have grown up (9)_____ new kind of (10)_____ tulip; (11)_____ group of (12)_____ Swedes has reached (13)______ highest peak of (14)_____Middle Asia – (15)_____ Everest; (16)_____ tiger is in (17)_____ danger of (18)_____ extinction and needs (19)_____ protection; (20)_____ Government again is promising (21)_____ help to (22)_____ poor, (23)_____ disabled and (24)_____ old.


10. (1)_____ Athens is becoming more and more attractive to (2)_____ tourists. Although (3)_____ city may seem big and noisy, (4)_____ tourists can still find rather a lot of quite places with (5)_____ romantic atmosphere to enjoy (6)_____ tasty Greek meal and listen to (7)_____ traditional music. We found that (8)_____ prices in (9)_____ restaurants were very reasonable, not too expensive for (10)_____ average tourist. (11)_____ service was a bit slow, but (12)_____ waiters were usually quite friendly. As for (13)_____ transport, (14)_____ number of taxis in (15)_____ Athens is quite amazing. We found (16)_____ cost of getting round by (17)_____ taxi much cheaper than in (18)_____ most European capitals but (19)_____ taxi-drivers can be a bit rude at (20)_____ times.


11. I've been going to (1)_____ Pasta Restaurant once (2)_____ week for (3)_____ last ten years. It is situated in (4)_____ little back street near (5)_____ central square, so (6)_____ visitor to (7)_____ town could easily miss it if she or he is not actually looking for it. It's my favourite place to eat because (8)_____ food is superb and (9)_____ service is excellent. Mario, (10)_____ manager of (11)_____ restaurant is (12)_____ very friendly man who greets his customers with (13)_____ strong Italian accent. Eating at (14)_____ Pasta is (15)_____ enjoyable experience, not only for (16)_____ tasty dishes, but also for (17)_____ hospitality of (18)_____ staff.



21.  The Use of Articles with Proper Names


Exercise 21.1. Study the rule. 

 1. The definite article is used when a

 personal name has the plural form to indicate a whole family.

 e.g. That evening I went to dine with the Smiths.

 1. Generally no article is used with names of persons.

 e.g. I didn’t see Charles Brown for several years. 

 2.Personal names modified by adjectives or prepositional phrases take the definite article.

 e.g. The late Mrs. Jones was a very nice person.

 She was not the Mary of his youth.  

 2. There is no article before personal names modified by the adjectives

 old, young, dear, poor, little, tiny, honest.

 e.g. Old Anthony met us at the station.

 3. Foreign titles take the definite article before personal names.

 e.g. The Emperor Napoleon, the Czar Peter

 3. Nouns denoting titles, ranks, posts are used without any article when they precede personal names.

e.g. Lord Byron, President Roosevelt,  Sergeant Pepper 

 4. All other appositive nouns take the definite article when used before personal nouns.

 e.g. the painter Hogarth, the critic Hudson 

 4. Nouns denoting family relations take no article before personal names.

 e.g. Uncle Tom, Cousin John

 5. A personal name has the indefinite article when

  • it is modified by the adjective certain; sometimes a  before a personal name may mean certain.

 e.g. He was engaged to be married to a Miss Smith.

  • it indicates a member of the family,

 e.g. I have often wondered if Arthur was really a Burton.

  • it indicates one resembling somebody,

 e.g. She felt like an Alice in Wonderland.

  • it denotes a thing associated with the name of a certain person.

 e.g. He wanted to know how much a Ford cost. 



Practice Activities.


Exercise 21.2. Comment on the use of the articles with proper names.

1. The Granges were the only people in the town I knew.  6. Hampton Court was begun by Cardinal Wolsey.
2. When young Rockwell entered the library, the old man looked at him with a kindly smile. 7. The beautiful Mary, Queen of Scots was beheaded.
3. His face always reminded him of a Lincoln grown old. 8. I am expecting Aunt Agatha.
4. A Mr. Drake phoned in the morning, but he didn’t leave any message. 9. Every morning he drove out in a rickety old Ford.
5. Suddenly the silent Mr. Fanthorn swung round and addressed Barbara. 10. The boy is a real Benbow.



Exercise 21.3. Insert the proper articles.

1. Yesterday _____ dear old Jones started taking _____ engine to _____ pieces.

2. _____ young actress was hailed as _____ new Marilyn Monroe.

3. One of his daughters had married _____ Rothschild.

4. With _____ Mona Lisa smile she nodded to everything I said.

5. _____ Major Wilby and _____ lovely Mabel departed.

6. I was invited to _____ dinner given to welcome _____ President Shirac.

7. There was _____ nice Renoir and _____ lovely little Manet on _____ far wall.

8. Their governess was _____ Miss Robinson, quite _____ nice girl, young and pretty.

9. _____ old Mr. Martin, _____ present Mr. Martin’s father married _____ Mrs. Worple.

10. _____ Princess of Wales visited _____ shelter for _____ homeless yesterday.

11. She wasn’certain that _____ Edward who wrote to her now was not _____ same Edward that she had known.

12. Although _____ old Jacob was not as ill as he had made out to _____ young Jacob, he still felt a bit under _____ weather.

13. And young Curtis has been a bit under the weather, missed training this week, so he's out.

14. A little way off he saw his wife in _____ long chair talking with _____ Davidsons.

15. _____ Swithin smiled and nodding at _____ Bossiney said: "Why, you’re quite _____ Monte Cristo".

16. He is _____ cousin of _____ Albert Einstein, you know. – Is he indeed? _____ Albert Einstein?

17. _____ Detective Sherlock Holmes and his assistant, _____ Doctor Watson, solved a lot of mysteries.

18. There are three cars parked outside: _____ Mercedes, _____ Jaguar and _____ Fiat. Mine is _____ Fiat.

19. _____ seventeenth-century writer Cervantes is often considered _____ father of _____ modern novel.

20. _____ former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere died at _____ age of 77 in _____ London hospital.

21. Being himself _____ fine musician, and _____ superlative performer on _____ violin, my father dreamed of turning me into _____ young Mozart, and my training on _____ piano began when I was three years.

22. At that time I had _____ great passion for _____ Impressionists. I longed to possess _____ Manet and _____ Degas.

23. _____ Margaret Thatcher, who was _____ Prime Minister of _____ Great Britain for 12 years, is now known as _____ Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven.

24. I was not surprised when _____ Mr. Latimer, _____ very fashionably dressed young man, asked me to accompany him in _____ car, which was waiting at _____ door.

25. When _____ dear old Emily went back to _____ town after staying with _____ Burnells for _____ fortnight, she sent _____ children _____ doll’s house.

26. He works for _____ newspaper and he has interviewed many famous people like _____ Pope, _____ famous writer Ruth Rendell and _____ Princess Anne.



Exercise 21.4. Insert the proper articles.

1. She had _____ ticket for _____ dinner and fashion show at _____ Castle Hotel.

2. Nowadays _____ hairdresser’s is _____ place where both _____ men and _____ women can have ____ haircut.

3. She suddenly remembered how ill she was when there was _____ storm in _____ Indian Ocean.

4. I'm not going to _____ Cyprus for _____ holiday, I'm going there on _____ business.

5. _____ Yorkshire is famous for _____ delicious food, including _____ Yorkshire pudding and _____ roastbeef.

6. Here are some of his belongings such as _____ sword given to him in _____ Caucasus and many historical manuscripts.

7. At _____ first glance, there was nothing out of _____ ordinary about _____ Room 826 in _____ Capital Hilton Hotel.

8. _____ New York, _____ largest city in _____ USA, is situated at _____ mouth of _____ Hudson River, sometimes called _____ North River.

9. We've decided to go to _____ Canary Islands on _____ holiday. Last year we went to _____ Crete and liked _____ people there very much.

10. As you may know, Charles Dickens was born in _____ Portsmouth. We’ll visit _____ Charles Dickens’ Museum, so you can see where _____ man himself lived and died.

11. _____ last time when there was _____ fog here, _____ plane crashed in _____ field near _____ airport. _____ crew had _____ lucky escape. _____ man broke his leg, _____ rest were unhurt.

12. We have _____ very good train service from here to _____ city centre and _____ most people go to _____ work by _____ train. You can go by _____ bus, too, but you can't get _____ season ticket on _____ bus.

13. _____ man came when you were out. He wants to make _____ complaint about _____ article in _____ paper. He was in _____ very bad mood.

14. In _____ Netherlands and _____ Belgium _____ St. Nicolas’ Day, December 6 is _____ children’s festival, on _____ eve of which _____ saint is supposed to come riding from _____ Spain with _____ presents for all _____ good children.

15. On _____ Saturday last, as in his usual custom, _____ Mr. Davenheim took _____ 12.40 train from _____ Victoria station to _____ Chingside.

16. _____ man shouldn't interfere with _____ nature as _____ interference with _____ nature often brings _____ disaster. Everywhere _____ men has cut down _____ forests in _____ order to cultivate _____ ground, or to use _____  wood as _____ fuel or as _____ building material.

17. Take _____ trip up _____ Eiffel Tower to see _____ spectacular view and if you are _____ art lover, you should spent at least _____ day in _____ famous Louvre Art Museum. _____ evenings can be spent in one of _____ great number of cafes and bistros where you can taste _____ delicious French cuisine.

18. _____ famous traveler Thor Heyerdal decided to build _____ copy of _____ reed boats that were pictured in _____ ancient paintings and sail across _____ Atlantic from _____ North America to _____ Barbados. _____ expedition proved that _____ ancient civilizations had _____ skill to reach _____ Americas long before _____ Columbus.





Exercise 1. Insert the proper articles.

1. (1)_____ parrots are associated with (2)_____ pirates and (3)_____ sailors who used to return to England with them after (4)_____ voyages abroad.  (5)_____ parrots were often taught to say 'Pretty Polly', in (6)_____ reference to themselves, Polly being (7)_____ nickname of (8)_____ parrot. (9)_____ famous parrot in (10)_____ fiction is (11)_____ Captain Flint, (12)_____ parrot belonging to (13)_____ one-legged pirate Long John Silver in (14)_____ Stevenson's 'Treasure Island'.


2. Anyone who has (1)_____ history of (2)_____ health problems and (3)_____ people who are fifty or older should get (4)_____ flu vaccination every year before (5)_____ flu season begins in November. (6)_____ flu, or influenza, is (7)_____ serious infection of (8)_____ nose, (9)_____ throat and (10)_____ lungs. (11)_____ symptoms include (12)_____ fever, (13)_____ cough, (14)_____ runny nose, (15)_____ sore throat, (16)_____ headache and (17)_____ tiredness. Anyone can catch (18)_____ flu and give it to others. It is spread when (19)_____ infected person coughs or sneezes.


3. It’s often said that learning to use (1)_____ computer is like learning (2)_____ language. In (3)_____ fact it’s a lot easier than that. (4)_____ two-term course will take you from (5)_____ very basics through to (6)_____ more advanced skills. Whether you are (7)_____ high-powered executive, (8)_____ unemployed school-leaver or (9)_____ university student, (10)_____ computer skills are (11)_____ absolute essential in (12)_____ today’s high-tech world. Your tutor, Mike Roland, has been working as (13)_____ top systems analyst at (14)_____ IBM for (15)_____ last 8 years.


4. There was (1)_____ programme on (2)_____ television about (3)_____ dangers to (4)_____ environment. There was also (5)_____ article about (6)_____ pollution in (7)_____ paper. (8)_____ ozone layer will continue to disappear if we don't find (9)_____ way to stop it. (10)_____ world's weather is changing. (11)_____ pollution is having (12)_____ effect to our climate. (13)_____ last week (14)_____ oil tank spilled (15)_____ oil into (16)_____ sea, damaging (17)_____ wildlife. Some professors have signed (18)_____ letter of protest and have sent it to (19)_____ government. If (20)_____ earth was (21)_____ human being, it would be in (22)_____ hospital.


5. (1)_____ Wales is (2)_____ country that has kept a lot of traditions. It's (3)_____ country where (4)_____ music and (5)_____ songs are very popular. If you enjoy (6)_____ arts, (7)_____ Wales is definitely (8)_____ place to visit. (9)_____ countryside in (10)____ Wales is very beautiful. It's (11)_____ very green country and its beauty attracts many tourists, especially (12)_____ nature lovers. There are many words in (13)_____ old Welsh language that mean "green" in (14)_____ same way as (15)_____ Eskimos have (16)_____ different words for (17)_____ word "snow". If you have (18)_____ good weather, (19)_____ summer in (20)_____ Wales is beautiful. (21)_____ most people, however, prefer (22)_____ guaranteed sunshine of (23)_____ Mediterranean.


6. (1)_____ dog is no longer top of (2)_____ pet world. He is now outnumbered in (3)_____ British homes by (4)_____ cat. (5)_____ reason is one of economics. (6)_____ cat is (7)_____ much more practical and less demanding pet. (8)_____ cats started living with (9)_____ people as (10)_____ pets thousands of years ago. (11)… cats are usually good hunters and can catch (12)_____ mice and (13)_____ small birds – although they don't eat them, if they can get (14)_____ normal cat food. There are over one hundred breeds of cat, and there is even (15)_____ hairless cat, which is called (16)_____ sphinx cat.


7. In (1)_____ days before (2)_____ invention of (3)_____ radio or (4)_____ television, (5)_____ majority of people made their own entertainment at home. Many evenings were spent reading (6)_____ novel, playing (7)_____ piano or painting (8)_____ picture. In many ways, (9)_____ people were almost forced to find (10)_____ creative outlet in one form or another. (11)_____ things have changed a lot since then, however. (12)_____ typical evening’s entertainment would be to spend a few hours in front of (13)_____ television. This is not really (14)_____ productive use of one’s time or energy and has maybe contributed to (15)_____ breakdown of communication within (16)_____ family. 


8. (1)_____ Pot is one of (2)_____ nicest restaurant in this area. It is situated in (3)_____ little back street near (4)_____ central square, so (5)_____ visitor to (6)_____ town could easily miss it if she or he is not actually looking for it. It is always busy in (7)_____ evenings, so it is essential to book (8)_____ table in (9)_____ order to avoid (10)_____ disappointment. When you arrive, (11)_____ waiter will show you to your table, hand you (12)_____ menu and ask if you want to drink anything. There is (13)_____ fantastic selection of good wines to choose from. (14)_____ decor is simple but tasteful. (15)_____ classical music is being played quietly in (16)_____ background. But (17)_____ best thing about (18)_____ Pot is (19)_____ food, absolutely delicious.


9. One of (1)_____ nicest ways to spend (2)_____ summer afternoon is to have (3)_____ picnic. (4)_____ picnics are popular with (5)_____ women and (6)_____ children and (7)_____ men who know how to make (8)_____ fire. (9)_____ children are fond of picnics because they have (10)_____ nice opportunity to eat (11)_____ things that do not agree with them. Some things are essential if (12)_____ picnic is going to be (13)_____ enjoyable experience. Firstly, (14)_____ weather has to be sunny, not many people enjoy eating (15)_____ sandwiches in (16)_____ pouring rain. Secondly, (17)_____ place must be carefully chosen. (18)_____ beaches are seldom ideal for picnics because (19)_____ sand will always find its way into (20)_____ food. In my opinion, (21)_____ perfect picnic spot is in (22)_____ mountains, next to (23)_____ river.


10. (1)_____ hundred and fifty years ago, (2)_____ nurses didn't study (3)_____ medicine, but (4)_____ British woman called Florence Nightingale tried to change all that. In (5)_____ 1850s, she worked in (6)_____ hospital for (7)_____ wounded soldiers in (8)_____ Crimea.  (9)_____ people say she never slept, but spent all her time helping (10)_____ men. (11)_____ soldiers called her «(12)_____ Lady of (13)_____ Lamp» because of (14)_____ lamp she always carried as she walked around at (15)_____ night. When she returned to Great Britain, she began (16)_____ school of nursing in London.


11. Joan arrived just after (1)_____ breakfast and we went for (2)_____ long walk in (3)_____ morning. By around (4)_____ midday we were starving, but by (5)_____ time we got (6)_____ home Mark had cooked us (7)_____ wonderful dinner – (8)_____ turkey and (9)_____ Christmas pudding. We just sat in front of (10)_____ TV during the afternoon watching (11)_____ old films. Joan went (12)_____ home early in (13)_____ evening as she doesn’t like driving at (14)_____ night. We hope to see her again in (15)_____ New Year. Then, around (16)… midnight when we were going to (17)_____ bed, Louise phoned from Australia to say that she was hoping to come to see us (18)_____ next Christmas.


12. Have you ever been to (1)_____ Leoni’s? We went yesterday and it was (2)_____ wonderful experience. First I asked (3)_____ waiter to bring us (4)_____ wine menu so that we could decide what to drink. For my starter I ordered (5)_____ garlic mushrooms and for my main course (6)_____ turkey, (7)_____ fried potatoes and (8)_____ red wine. For (9)_____ dessert I had (10)_____ vanilla ice-cream. I asked (11)_____ waiter to bring (12)_____ bill and I had to pay (13)_____ cash because they wouldn't take (14)_____ credit cards. I left (15)_____ waiter quite (16)_____ large tip as I was pleased with (17)_____ service. 


13. Ten months ago Peter and Sarah Moor came back to (1)_____ United Kingdom from (2)_____ USA, where they had run (3)_____ language school for (4)_____ immigrants for (5)_____ last ten years. When (6)_____ couple moved into their old house, they got (7)_____ chance to create (8)_____ completely new interior. They decided to design (9)_____ kitchen they always wanted. With (10)_____ large window, (11)_____ double oven, as they are (12)_____ very keen cooks, (13)_____ traditional country style cupboards. (14)_____ budget wasn’t huge so they couldn’t afford to hire (15)_____ architect to design (16)_____ interior. They did everything themselves – Peter painted (17)_____ walls pale green using (18)_____ mixture of (19)_____ different paints, Sarah found (20)_____ furniture and (21)_____ kitchen equipment in (22)_____ department stores and (23)_____ second-hand stores. (24)_____ final result is impressive – (25)_____ airy, spacious room with (26)_____ excellent natural light. (27)_____ kitchen is now (28)_____ heart of their home and (29)_____ family just love it.


14. John Miller, who lives in Sterling in (1)_____ central Scotland, thought he had found (2)_____ bargain when he bought (3)_____ Volkswagen for just one thousand, one hundred and sixty-five pounds at (4)_____ auction in April this year. Everything was fine for about (5)_____ month, then one day (6)_____ car just stopped. John took it to (7)_____ local garage where (8)_____ mechanic thought there was (9)_____ problem with (10)_____ petrol supply. He was really surprised when he discovered (11)_____ source of (12)_____ problem. He had to remove (13)_____ large, tightly-sealed plastic bag from (14)_____ petrol tank. Inside (15)_____ bag was (16)_____ wad of one hundred pound notes. Suddenly, (17)_____ Volkswagen was (18)_____ even bigger bargain than John had imagined. But John is (19)_____ police. They are now trying to find (21)_____ car’s previous owner because they want to know where (22)_____ money came from and why it was hidden.


15. (1)_____ new school of cookery has opened in France. It has been started by (2)_____ group of (3)_____ grandmothers, who are anxious to keep (4)_____ traditional food and cooking techniques alive. They are against (5)_____ modern day use of (6)_____ freezers, (7)_____ microwaves and (8)_____ TV dinners. None of these grandmothers have (9)_____ experience as (10)_____ professional cook. They are only motivated by (11)_____ desire to produce (12)_____ good quality, tasty food. (13)_____ grandmothers run (14)_____ cookery courses two or three times (15)_____ week, and (16)_____ fee of about $15 includes (17)_____ tuition and lunch. (18)_____ courses are (19)_____ great fun and (20)_____ tourists join in with (21)_____ locals as they strive together to create (22)_____ delicious meal. At (23)_____ midday they all sit down at (24)_____ long tables to eat (25)_____ three course lunch, which is washed down with (26)_____ local wine.   


16. (1)_____ rose, (2)_____ national flower of England, is usually thought to be (3)_____  most typical British flower. It has frequently been used in (4)_____ poetry as (4)_____ symbol of (5)_____ romantic love. (6)_____ violet is often seen as symbolizing (7)_____ modesty, and (8)_____ shy retiring person can be called «(9)_____ shrinking violet». (10)_____ daisy is one of (11)_____ most common British wild flower carries (12)_____ association of (13)_____ summer picnics and making (14)_____ daisy chains. (15)_____ dandelions and (16)______ buttercups have (17)_____ bright yellow petals and are associated with (18)_____ summer. (19)_____ snowdrops and (20)_____ bluebells are (21)_____ popular spring flowers, often found growing wild in (21)_____ woods. (22)_____ daffodil is also (23)_____ national flower of Wales. (24)_____ carnations, especially (25)_____ white ones, are often worn by (26)_____ men at (27)_____ weddings in (28)_____ buttonholes of their jackets, and (29)_____ chrysanthemums and (30)_____ white lilies are associated with (31)_____ funerals. Rose, Iris, Violet were popular as (32)_____ girl's names in (33)_____ Victorian times, but are less common nowadays.


17. After months of doing (1)_____ hard work, I decided that I needed (2)_____ break. I wanted to go on (3)_____ trip and asked (4)_____ friend of mine for (5)_____ advice about where I could go. I really enjoy traveling and I love meeting (6)_____ people from (7)_____ other cultures – it’s always (8)_____ great fun. My friend said that I should go to Italy, which was (9)______ place I had never been to before. I got (10)_____ information about (11)_____ train tickets and (12)_____ accommodation from (13)_____ Tourist Board office and off I went. I traveled all over Italy and what (14)_____ fantastic time I had! I really like (15)_____ pasta so I liked (16)_____ food there and I like (17)_____ extrovert people so made (18)_____ friends there everywhere I go. We talked about all kinds of things, like (19)_____ life, (20)______ love and a lot of less serious subjects, too. I found (21)______ countryside in Italy beautiful and (22)_____ cities I went to amazing. In particular, I will always remember (23)_____ atmosphere and (24)_____ buildings in Venice – it’s (25)______ place that makes (26)_____ great impression on everyone who goes there. I’d love to go there every year – going on (27)_____ trip like that is my idea of (28)______ happiness. I’m planning (29)_____ next one now.


18. When David went to (1)_____ travel agent’s to ask for (2)______ information about (3)_____ cruises to (4)_____ North America, he was given (5)_____ brochure and told that if he wanted to go, he would have to make (6)_____ booking as soon as possible, as (7)_______ next cruise was leaving in (8)_____ fortnight. He looked at (9)_____ brochure and, after (10)_____ thought, decided to go, provided he could make (11)_____ arrangement with his boss to get (12)_____ time off. He gave (13)_____ travel agent (14)_____ money as (15)_____ deposit, then went to his office as he had (16)_____ important work to do. After (17)_____ hour or so, his boss came in and David asked him if he could take (18)_____ three weeks off as he hadn’t taken (19)_____ holiday for nearly (20)_____ year. His boss was quite agreeable, though at first had (21)_____ doubts about letting David go for such (22)_____ long time. In (23)_____ end he agreed to give him (24)_____ entire month off, and wished him (25)_____ wonderful holiday.


19. (1)_____ stay in (2)_____ hotel is not always (3)_____ pleasant experience. There are many things that can ruin (4)_____ otherwise enjoyable visit. Many problems occur in (5)_____ bathroom. (6)_____ instructions for using (7)_____ shower are not only complicated, but are often written in (8)______ obscure language as well. (9)_____ over-enthusiastic staff are another source of irritation. (10)_____ cleaners appear at (11)_____ inconvenient times, ignoring (12)_____ «Do Not Disturb» sign, in (13)_____ order to check (14)_____ linen. (15)_____ porters surround (16)_____ guests and grab their luggage, hoping for (17)_____ tip. Some visitors love (18)_____ free samples of soap and shampoo and eagerly take them home, others consider such things (19)_____ waste of money and resent paying (20)_____ high room prices to cover (21)_____ cost of these useless items. What makes (22)_____ hotel guest happy? (23)_____ most people agree that (24)_____ comfortable beds are (25)_____ important factor. (26)_____ business travelers value (27)_____ facilities such as (28)_____ fax machines and (29)______ direct-dial telephones. However, (30)____ efficient service comes at (31)_____ top of everyone’s list.


20. (1)_____ area of (2)_____ North Atlantic has not changed since (3)_____ last Ice Age according to (4)_____ scientists. They have found that (5)_____ temperature of (6)_____ deep water near (7)_____ Shetland Islands always remains a little below zero degrees. In (8)_____ view of (9)_____ intense cold, (10)_____ water never freezes because it is extremely salty, and it is inhabited by (11)_____ giant sea spiders. (12)_____ discovery was made by (13)_____ team of (14)_____ scientists studying (15)_____ ocean floor at (16)… depths of more than (17)_____ mile. They also found (18)_____ deep marks in (19)_____ seabed at (20)_____ depth of around 350 meters, which they say must have been caused by (21)_____ icebergs that had broken away from (22)______ Scotland during (23)______ Ice Age. What worries (24)_____ environmentalists, however, is that (25)______ area lies near (26)_____ place of (27)______ rich oil deposits. (28)_____ organizations such as (29)_____ Greenpeace fear that it is only (30)______ matter of time before (31)_____ multinational oilcompanies start exploring this sub-zero world. If that happens, they warn, (32)______ oil slicks harm (33)_____ environment that has lain untouched for thousands of years.



Exercise 2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Все улики были против него.

2. Я не могу найти свою пижаму. Ты не знаешь, где она?

3. Ему нужны деньги, но он не знает, как их заработать. Мне кажется, что я нашел средство помочь ему.

4. Родители Мэри и Доррис раньше не встречались.

5. Ему не нравилась привычка тещи давать советы по любому поводу.

6. Ешьте фрукты только тогда, когда они созреют.

7. Прохожие смотрели на клоунов с удивлением.

8. Газеты написали о негативном отношении главнокомандующего к этому событию.

9. Она получает десятки писем каждый день.

10. Он предложил перекусить, прежде чем мы начнем готовиться к экзамену, так как он не ел с раннего утра.

11. Самые последние новости печатаются в утренних газетах.

12. Как ты думаешь, она обиделась, когда я сказала, что ee желтая блузка не подходит к синей юбке?

13. К концу недели он уже месяц пробудет в больнице. Я не знаю, когда его выпишут (discharge from hospital).

14. Расскажите нам в деталях об этом происшествии, которое так глубоко потрясло (shock) всех.

15. Те немногие новости, которые доходят до нас в последнее время, противоречивы.

16. Ракета полетит на планету Марс со скоростью 25 000 миль в час.

17. Количество людей, приезжающих в США с Филиппин, постоянно растет.

18. Достаточно ли он опытен, чтобы получить такую важную работу?

19. Тот факт, что родители отказываются посылать детей в школу, говорит сам за себя.

20. Она предложила поехать в Альпы, но я не был уверен, что это хорошая идея, так как это был бы очень дорогой отпуск.

21. Она упаковала стаканы недостаточно тщательно, и они разбились на кусочки.

22. Примите две таблетки за раз, и боль пройдет через два часа.

23. Я говорю о капитане Смите, который живет на Хай-стрит, напротив церкви

24. Масло и сыр на столе, виноград – в холодильнике.

25. Красный цвет не подходит людям с рыжими волосами.

26. Какова длина Панамского канала?

27. Я хочу дать тебе разумный совет – не принимай это близко к сердцу.

28. Напомни ему о завтрашнем родительском собрании. Оно состоится завтра в школе в 7.

29. Содержание записки мне неизвестно.

30. Она воспользовалась его щедростью и заставила его оплатить счет.

31. Я почувствовал себя лучше после того, как выпил чашечку черного крепкого бразильского кофе.

32. Нам сказали, что встреча состоится завтра в комнате 203.

33. Такая ветреная погода типична для восточного побережья США.

34. Великий английский художник Тернер был признан гением еще при жизни.

35. Картофель и помидоры были завезены в Европу из Северной Америки.