UNIT 2. POSSESSIVE CASE
Choose the proper item.
1. I’d like to know the _____ opinion about this item of news.
1) editor’s-in-chief 2) editor-in-chief’s 3) editor-in-chief
2. It’s his new _____ car.
1) sport’s 2) sports’ 3) sports
3. Jane took _____ bag instead of his own.
1) somebody’s else 2) somebody else 3) somebody else’s
4. _____ luggage was not well attended to.
1) A passengers’ 2) Passengers’ 3) Passenger’s
5. The students borrowed _____ notes.
1) each other’s 2) each’s other 3) each others’
6. It’s amazing what a _____ hotel can do to revive your spirits.
1) five stars’ 2) five-star 3) five-star’s
7. A woman stepped out from _____ and waved to us.
1) hairdresser 2) the hairdressers’ 3) the hairdresser’s
8. How many of ___ novels have you read?
1) Dicken’s 2) Dickens’ 3) Dickens
9. He was on his _____ walk to Berkley.
1) two mile’s 2) two-miles 3) two miles’
10. My _____ parents have decided to move to the country.
1) sister’s-in-law 2) sister-in-law’s 3) sister-in-law
11. It’s only _____ drive from the airport.
1) a twenty-minute 2) a twenty minutes’ 3) a twenty-minutes
12. Kate saw a fantastic article in _____ local paper.
1) the today’s 2) today’s 3) the today
13. Could you give me _____ worth of those apples?
1) a dollars’ 2) a dollar’s 3) dollar’s
14. There was a scratch on my _____.
1) car paintwork 2) car’s paintwork 3) paintwork of car
15. The most senior clergyman in the church of England is _____.
1) Canterbury’s Archbishop 2) the Archbishop of Canterbury 3) the Canterbury Archbishop
1. The Possessive Case. Form and Usage (1)
Exercise1.1. Study the rule.
We usually use the possessive ’s structure when talking about something that belongs to people or other living things
e.g. Have your seen my brother’s new car?
We’ll be at John’s soon. (John’s house)
The dog’s hind leg is hurt.
These are the key rules about what form of the possessive case to use:
e.g. a man’s job, men’s work
e.g. a girls’ school, the Smiths’ car
e.g. Pythagoras’ Theorem, Keats’ poems
e.g. Mr. Jones’s (Mr. Jones’) house
e.g. my brother-in-law’s guitar
e.g. Henry the Eighth’s wives, somebody else’s house, in an hour or so’s time
e.g. Mary and Tom’s wedding
e.g. Mary’s and Tom’s cars
e.g. the MP’s briefcase
e.g. one’s house, each other’s notes
e.g. our neighbour’s children’s loud music
Exercise1.2. The possessive ending ’s is pronounced [s] after the following consonants [f], [k], [p], [t], [Ө], [z] after the following consonants: [b], [d], [g], [l], [m], [n], [ŋ], [v], [ð] and vowels, and [iz] after the sounds: [z], [s], [ʤ], [ʧ]. Put the words into three columns according to its pronunciation.
The Pope’s visit
|1) the Pope’s visit||11) your money’s worth|
|2) women’s liberation||12) the horse’s mouth|
|3) St George’s Hall||13) the Devil’s Disciple|
|4) the water’s edge||14) Mike’s place|
|5) a year’s time||15) the teacher’s opinion|
|6) Jack’s dinner||16) the princess’s wedding dress|
|7) France’s dress||17) for Pete’s sake|
|8) a month’s time||18) the monarch’s role|
|9) nature’s engineering||19) Steve’s study|
|10) the church’s work||20) a waitress’s uniform|
Exercise 1.3. Rewrite these sentences using ’s, s’, or just an apostrophe (’).
|1. This bicycle is for a child.||6. This is a club for women.|
|2. This pen belongs to the teacher.||7. It’s a school for girls.|
|3. He describes the career of the actress.||8. This is the lounge for residents.|
|4. That is a job for a stewardess.||9. This umbrella belongs to James.|
|5. The toys belong to the children.||10. That hat belongs to Doris.|
Exercise 1.4. Put the word combinations into the possessive form.
|1) the clothes of the boys||16) the new tie of my friend Cyril|
|2) the club of the women||17) the crown of the King of England|
|3) the father of James||18) the visit of the President of Chile|
|4) my mother-in-law favourite flowers||19) the castle of Elizabeth the Second|
|5) the orders of the Commander-in-Chief||20) the famous shop of Fortnum and Mason|
|6) the name of my sister-in-law||21) the holiday of my friend Dorris|
|7) the poems of Burns||22) the reforms of Peter the Great|
|8) the park of St James||23) a wrist-watch of a lady or a gentleman|
|9) the countries of Caesar and Cleopatra||24) the favourite of the boss|
|10) the wedding of William and Mary||25) the bedroom of my mum and dad|
|11) the hats of ladies||26) the garden of their grandparents|
|12) the stories told by Mary and Jack||27) the names of other schoolchildren|
|13) the toys of the children||28) the fault of somebody else|
|14) the law of Archimedes||29) beliefs of other people|
|15) the typist of Mr. Sims||30) the partnership of Smith, Wilson and Nelson|
Exercise 1.5. Translate the following word combinations from Russian into English.
|1) голос актрисы||9) квартира Мэри и Джона|
|2) машина мистера Дэвиса||10) замок Генриха VIII|
|3) фуражки полицейских||11) свадьба моей невестки|
|4) кольцо принцессы Дианы||12) права женщин|
|5) женская и детская одежда||13) собака детей соседа|
|6) ничья вина||14) дело кого-то еще|
|7) багаж пассажиров||15) мнение американского президента|
|8) речь Министра иностранных дел|
2. The Possessive Case. Form and Usage (2)
Exercise 2.1. Study the rule.
The possessive structure is used
e.g. Was there anything nice at the baker’s this morning?
I’m getting the Christmas shopping at Macy’s.
She is at the doctor’s.
e.g. Oil is Saudi Arabia’s biggest export.
The BBC’s new programmes are really interesting.
Radio City Hall is one of New York’s most famous theatres.
We were amazed by the ship’s sheer size.
e.g. the earth’s atmosphere
e.g. There will be an hour’s delay.
The beach was ten minutes’ drive from the hotel.
He covered two kilometers’ distance in half an hour.
They ordered a thousand dollars’ worth of children’s toys and clothes.
We can also use compound nouns to express the same idea.
e.g. The beach was a ten-minute drive from the hotel.
e.g. Have you seen the poem in today’s ‘Observer’?
e.g. love’s passionate embrace, jealousy’s dark thoughts
e.g. She was at death’s door. For heaven’s sake, be quiet!
Nouns in the possessive case can sometimes be used without a following noun when stating that the first noun is one of several. The indefinite article is used in this pattern.
e.g. It’s a film of Hitchcock’s. She’s a friend of my mother’s.
Exercise 2.2. Complete these sentences using the appropriate possessive form.
1. The bike that belongs to my neighbour’s children is my __________ bike.
2. The prices we have this year are called __________.
3. The scheme sponsored by the Duke of Edinburgh is known as __________.
4. A drive of two hours is called __________.
5. The office where the managing director works is known as __________.
6. The car that belongs to my sister-in-law is called __________.
7. The paper I read yesterday can be referred to as __________.
8. A school for boys is called __________.
9. A rest for five minutes is called __________.
10. The union that represents railway men is ___________.
11. The law, which was formulated by a man called Murphy, is known as __________.
12. A trip that lasted two days is called __________.
13. He walked for five kilometers, so he covered __________ distance.
14. The home where the nurses live is called __________.
15. The car, which belongs to Mr. Brown’s wife, is __________.
16. The special offer that is valid for this month is called __________.
17. The changing room used by women is called __________.
18. A break of fifteen minutes is called __________.
19. He paid twenty dollars for book, he had __________ of books.
20. John and Dorris celebrated their silver wedding, it was __________.
Exercise 2.3. Complete the sentences by adding apostrophe or apostrophe s (‘s) to the noun group in brackets.
1. This is my __________ house. (parents)
2. You know John? He’s __________ father. (David and Neil)
3. I borrowed __________ bike. (Lewis)
4. I’ll be staying at my __________. (uncle and aunt)
5. That looks like __________ car. (John and Jean)
6. Could you give me __________ address? (Charles)
7. You need __________ rest. (a couple of days)
8. We usually have __________ holiday in summer. (two weeks)
9. Did you see the cartoon in __________ newspaper? (yesterday)
10. Are you coming to my __________ party? (brother-in-law)
11. __________ versions of the event seemed different. (Mr. Smith and Mr. Sims)
12. There’s a new __________ surgery on the corner of Greenford Street. (Dr. Brown)
13. The company manufactures low cost __________ uniforms. (nurses)
14. Don’t get involved into __________ problems. (other people)
15. __________ reign lasted for 45 years. (Elizabeth the First)
Exercise 2.4. Translate the following word combinations from Russian into English.
|1. поведение Джона и Джека||11. двадцатиминутная прогулка|
|2. мышиные хвосты||12. пятикилометровое расстояние|
|3. трехлетнее отсутствие||13. двухчасовая поездка на автомобиле|
|4. недельный отпуск||14. лисий мех|
|5. ущерб в две тысячи долларов||15. роль актрисы|
|6. копыта лошадей||16. ошибки других людей|
|7. деньги друг друга||17. пятилетний период|
|8. десятиметровое расстояние||18. книги на двадцать долларов|
|9. слова прохожих||19. цены прошлого месяца|
|10. подпись главного редактора||20. проблема кого-то еще|
|1) to lead a dogs life||11) be on the razors edge|
|2) one mans meat is another mans poison||12) to one’s hearts content|
|3) out of harms way||13) at arms length|
|4) for goodness sake||14) by a hairs breath|
|5) a fair days pay for a fair days work||15) the partys life and soul|
|6) a womans work is never done||16) for old times sake|
|7) at a stones throw||17) a needles eye|
|8) wolves in sheeps clothes||18) at one’s wits end|
|9) a lions share||19) to move at a snails pace|
|10) Hercules labour||20) a Thurdays child|
3. The Possessive Case or the of-phrase
Exercise 3.1. Study the rule.
Compare: my father’s name the name of the book
the firm’s structure the structure of plastic
America’s influence the influence of alcohol
the dog’s leg the leg of the table
We can use an of-phrase :
e.g. the cover of the book
the establishment of the committee,
the destruction of the forest,
She is the sister of someone I used to go to school with.
Exercise 3.2. Make two noun groups from each set of words. Comment on the use of ’s and an of-group.
Model: John’s arm; the arm of the chair
1) the policy: full employment, the company
2) the style: my favourite author, the 1930s
3) the place: language education, women
4) ideas: modern physics, my sons
5) rules: the club, football
6) the file: your secretary, legal documents
7) the view: the committee, the lake
8) the head: the cat, the queue
9) the arm: the chair, John
10) the story: Helen, the Civil War
11) the bed: the stream, the patient
12) the coat: the witness, snow
13) the atmosphere: the earth, mutual trust
14) the family: languages, my friend
15) the house: cards, my uncle Sam and aunt Grace
Exercise 3.3. Use ’s or s’ with these nouns where possible. Make up sentences with these word combinations.
|1) a delay of an hour||14) the new manager of the company|
|2) a journey of two days||15) the car of Mike's parents|
|3) the shade of the tree||16) the birthday of my father|
|4) the book of the film||17) the toys of the children|
|5) the inside of the box||18) the results of the football match|
|6) the price of the success||19) the new manager of the school|
|7) work of seven days||20) the War of a Hundred Years|
|8) the surface of the earth||21) the work of a whole day|
|9) an absence of a year||22) in the time of a week or two|
|10) the top of the page||23) the second meeting of the committee|
|11) the eyes of the cat||24) the climate of Scotland|
|12) the daughter of Charles||25) the oldest mountains in the world|
|13) the name of the street|
Exercise 3.4. Combine the following words combinations, using ’s or an of-group.
Model: the club – its monthly meeting --- the club’s monthly meeting
|1) the club – its monthly meeting||16) the French Revolution – its results|
|2) his parents – their car||17) the patients – their complaints|
|3) the world – its end||18) one of our teachers at college – her house|
|4) the trees – the highest branches||19) the judge – his opinion|
|5) the bank – its branch in Paris||20) Keats – a copy of his poetry|
|6) my family – its name||21) the box – its bottom|
|7) my suitcase – its lock||22) the committee – its decision|
|8) the town – its atmosphere||23) Mary and James – their cars|
|9) your office – its floor||24) those people we met in Spain – their address|
|10) our company – its best sales manager||25) London – its museums|
|11) next week – its timetable||26) the government – their intentions|
|12) the police force – its main problem||27) former president John F. Kennedy – his brother|
|13) last night – its party||28) children – for their sake|
|14) today – its news||29) the man in the corner – his dog|
|15) your test – its results||30) sheep – their wool|
Exercise 3.5. If you want to buy some food you go to the grocer’s. Where do you go if you want to do the following?
|1) have you teeth examined – go to the __________||6) buy some meat – go to the __________|
|2) have your eyes examined – go to the _________||7) get you hair cut – go to the __________|
|3) buy some medicine – go to the __________||8) buy some flowers – go to the __________|
|4) buy some screws and nails – go to the _________||9) have clothes cleaned – go to the __________|
|5) buy some vegetables – go to the __________||10) buy a newspaper – go to the __________|
Exercise 3.6. Answer the questions, using the possessive case of the nouns.
|1. Where do you buy bread, milk and meat?||6. Where can you have your hair cut and made?|
|2. Where can you have your watch repaired?||7. Where can you buy cigarettes?|
|3. Where can you have your dress made?||8. Where can you buy sweets and cookies?|
|4. Where can you order a new suit?||9. Where can you find out about your holidays?|
|5. Where can you have your prescription made?||10. Where can you buy cakes and biscuits?|
Exercise 1. Choose one expression from each pair to fill in the blanks in the verse from a greeting card.
(Life’s troubles/ Troubles of life) can sometimes leave us with a frown,
And the (each day’s worries/ worries of each day) can get us down;
But this (morning special of news/ morning’s special news) is here
To make all the (world’s problems/ problems of the world) disappear;
Because of one (love’s woman/ woman’s love), we can say
Thanks and best wishes to you on this (Mother Day/ Mother’s Day).
Exercise 2. Correct any possible mistakes in the following sentences.
1. There was a chair near the library’s secretary desk.
2. Mr. Brown was satisfied with the results of Tom and Nick’s visit.
3. I think we ought to drink dear James’ health, and the health of Charles’ wife.
4. I’m not good at other peoples’ affairs.
5. They had found refreshments over the way at Brown’s and Smith’s.
6. I’m really fed up with my landlord’s wife’s complaints about noise.
7. My brother’s-in-law parents have decided to emigrate.
8. It’s not my bag, it’s somebody else.
9. There was a two minute’s wait while the computer started.
10. Janice decided to open a shop specializing in childrens’ clothes.
Exercise 3. Translate the following word combinations into English.
|1) сад моей свекрови||13) речь королевы Елизаветы II|
|2) кабинет главнокомандующего||14) подпись главного редактора|
|3) адрес родителей моего друга||15) дно бутылки|
|4) форма пожарных||16) женская и мужская обувь|
|5) описание эксперимента||17) получасовoй перерыв|
|6) пятичасовой полет||18) работа стюардессы|
|7) жены Генриха VIII||19) родительское собрание|
|8) проблема кого-то еще||20) полуторачасовое ожидание|
|9) вчерашняя газета||21) пятнадцатиминутная прогулка|
|10) двухнедельное путешествие||22) теорема Пифагора|
|11) семичасовой рабочий день||23) сторона дома|
|12) братья Джона Брауна и Теда Смита||24) середина дороги|
4. Nouns in the Possessive Case and Compound Nouns
Exercise 4.1. Study the rule.
Compound nouns are nouns which have been created by combining two or more nouns which are related to each other.
e.g. a shoe shop, a fashion magazine, an address book, a sports car
Compound nouns can be formed:
Compound nouns can be written:
Exercise 4.2. Study the ways in which compound nouns can be made and translate the nouns.
Some ways in which compound nouns can be used:
- when the second noun belongs to or is part of the first
e.g. shop window, church bell, picture frame, garden gate, college library
- the first noun can indicate the location of the second
e.g. city street, corner shop, country lane, street market
- the first noun can state the material of which the second is made
e.g. steel door, stone wall, rope ladder, silk blouse, iron gate
- the first word can indicate the purpose of the second
e.g. coffee cup, escape hatch, notice board, tin opener, golf club
- these combinations are often used of occupations, sports, hobbies and people who practise them
e.g. football match, sheep farmer, water skier, pop singer, tennis tournament, beauty contest
- the first noun can show what the second is about or concerned with
e.g. A work of fiction can be a detective/ murder/ mystery/ ghost/ horror/ spy story.
We buy bus/ train/ plane tickets.
We pay fuel/ laundry/ milk/ telephone bills;
entry visa, income tax, car insurance, parking fines.
Exercise 4.3. Choose the correct noun group and account for its usage.
|1) a pilot’s seat – a pilot seat||14) the car’s previous owner – the car previous owner|
|2) travelers’ cheques – travelers cheques||15) the firm's office – the firm office|
|3) a leather’s wallet – a leather wallet||16) a street's lamp – a street lamp|
|4) a man’s voice – a man voice||17) a cowboy's film – a cowboy film|
|5) a fashion’s magazine – a fashion magazine||18) vegetable's salad – vegetable salad|
|6) a bus's station – a bus station||19) China's history – China history|
|7) a toy's shop – a toy shop||20) a telephone's box –a telephone box|
|8) this morning’s newspaper – this morning newspaper||21) a horse's race – a horse race|
|9) the teachers' office – the teacher office||22) a car's mechanic – a car mechanic|
|10) the computer's disk – the computer disk||23) the earth’s gravity – the earth gravity|
|11) my mother's chair – my mother chair||24) army’s officers – army officers|
|12) the paper's editor – the paper editor||25) mountain’s plants – mountain plants|
|13) a bath's towel – a bath towel|
Exercise 4.4. Supply a phrase with ’s or a compound noun in place of the phrase in italics.
|1. It's the idea of the manager.||16. Where is the surgery of the doctor?|
|2. Don't damage the nib of the pen.||17. It's the keyboard of the computer.|
|3. I've cleaned the top of the desk.||18. It was in the reign of King John.|
|4. Do you like the poetry of Keats?||19. It's the responsibility of somebody else.|
|5. Look at the handle of the suitcase.||20. Polish the knob of the front door.|
|6. The journey of Scott is historic.||21. Who stole the bicycle of the postman?|
|7. Put out the stub of that cigarette.||22. I spoke to the secretary of the boss.|
|8. We've got a new table in the kitchen.||23. Please clean the switches of the lights.|
|9. This is the new policy of the government.||24. The cover of the book is torn.|
|10. He's the son of Mr. Jones.||25. The gate of the factory was shut.|
|11. Please open the door of the garage.||26. I've lost the photo of the children.|
|12. The critic of the film was wrong.||27. The phone in the office is out of order.|
|13. These are shoes used for dancing.||28. The surface of the road is slippery.|
|14. Who's the mother of the twins?||29. I need a new lamp for reading.|
|15. Don't pull the tail of the horse.||30. Let’s go to the shop that sells clothes|
Exercise 4.5. Match the following parts of compound nouns and then fill in the blanks in the sentences using the most appropriate compound.
1. They should put a __________ outside school so that children don’t get run over.
2. Is the __________ you get from your parents enough for your need?
3. Can you send the __________ quickly – the house next door is on fire.
4. After the last break-in, they decided to get a __________ installed.
5. The nurse will take your __________ in a moment.
6. I can’t get the children to eat anything except __________.
7. We’re holding a tournament in the ice-hockey stadium, a __________ for the next year’s Winter Olympics.
8. A __________ travels to different places trying to persuade people to buy various goods.
9. The children’s bedrooms are __________ of each other.
10. They sell mainly __________.
Exercise 4.6. What do you call __________?
|1) a shelf for books||11) a dress that costs $80|
|2) a test to detect drugs||12) a building of 9 storeys|
|3) a flight lasting two hours||13) the price of success|
|4) pudding made of rice||14) work of seven years|
|5) wool from a lamb||15) the surface of the earth|
|6) a headline in a newspaper||16) a ruler 20 inches long|
|7) a request for help||17) a child who is five years old|
|8) the uniform worn by a nurse||18) clothes worn by children|
|9) insurance for a car||19) a book which contains 100 pages|
|10) the wheel of a bicycle||20) a degree you get at university|
Exercise 1. Choose the correct answer.
1. I was surprised by the announcement of yesterday/ yesterday’s announcement.
2. They left their home because of the extension of the airport/ the airport’s extension.
3. The guitar playing of David/ David’s guitar playing has improved enormously.
4. The completion of the road/ the road’s completion was ahead of schedule.
5. At the supermarket, I found I’d brought the shopping list of last week/ last week’s shopping list.
6. It’s the responsibility of the firm that built the houses/ the firm that built the houses’ responsibility.
7. Britain export/ Britain’s export to the United States has fallen recently.
8. That isn’t much use; it’s the calendar of last year/ last year’s calendar.
9. I was shocked by the opinion of Alice/ Alice’s opinion.
10. He gently pattered the shoulder of his brother/ his brother’s shoulder.
11. He’s a friend of a man I know at work/ a man I know at work’s friend.
12. The evacuation of the building/ the building’s evacuation took only 10 minutes.
13. Last week storm/ last week’s storm caused a lot of damage.
14. The only cinema of the town/ the town’s only cinema has been closed down.
15. There will be a big crowd at the football match of this evening/ at this evening’s football match.
Exercise 2. Rewrite the sentences using the possessive case of the nouns.
1. The stories Steve told and the stories Jane told were completely different.
2. I’m sure this bag doesn’t belong to him, it belongs to somebody else.
3. Let’s go to the shop that the girls own.
4. That is the hotel belonging to Mr. Hollis.
5. It’s the fault of nobody.
6. They had respect for the opinions of each other.
7. The dog belonging to the son of my next-door neighbour never stops barking.
8. I’m fed up with the hopeless inefficiency of the secretary of my boss.
9. The personality of my father and the personality of my mother are very much alike.
10. The new Act of Parliament will protect the right of everyone to privacy.
11. The changing room for men is over there on the right.
12. I’ve just inherited the house belonging to the brother of my grandmother.
13. The opinions of the poor residents are rarely taken into consideration.
14. The dance routines of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers are legendary.
15. She has been put in charge of the activities of children at the summer camp in Maine.
Exercise 3. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes and then correct them.
1. When the teacher had called out the girl’s names, they all stepped forward.
2. We had to study Charles Dicken’s early novels at school.
3. There were hundreds of birds nests in the tree.
4. They are my mother-in-law’s favourite sweets.
5. I took the book to Lewis’ house yesterday.
6. If they had been anyone’s else paintings I wouldn’t have gone to the exhibition.
7. The world airlines are moving towards a total ban on smoking.
8. The readers letters page in the newspaper is full of complaints about the article.
9. We had a two weeks holiday in Spain.
10. I’m sure you know far more than they do about their country history.
Exercise 1. Study the information below and write the number of appropriate examples in the spaces below.
1. We sometimes just add an apostrophe to a singular noun ending in -s, especially in classical reference. ( )
2. We can add ’s or ’ to a whole phrase. ( )
3. The ’s structure is often used for products from living animals. ( )
4. When we talk about one lot of things, we add ’s to the last word of the combination. ( )
5. The ’s (s’) structure is often used to say how long things last. ( )
a) John and Ann’s children
b) a day’s journey
c) the man next door’s wife
d) five days’ course
e) Socrates’ ideas
f) a hen’s egg
g) Pythagoras’ theorem
h) my uncle and aunt’s house
i) Henry the Eighth’s wives
j) Tom and Nick’s visit
k) Moses’ journey
Exercise 2. Make up word combinations using the Possessive Case structure.
|1. the cheques of travelers||14. the changing room for men|
|2. the decision of the authorities||15. the opinions of the poor residents|
|3. a course that lasts three months||16. the dance routines of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers|
|4. a shop of the florist||17. the dog belonging to the son of my next-door neighbour|
|5. the main export of Norway||18. the advice of somebody else|
|6. the reign of Elizabeth the First||19. the climate of Great Britain|
|7. a rest of a couple of days||20. the signature of the boss|
|8. the War of Seven Years||21. the books that belong to the children|
|9. bananas worth of five dollars||22. a lesson that lasts forty-five minutes|
|10. the garden of their grandparents||23. a nest where birds live|
|11. the jokes told by Mary and Jane||24. an egg that a hen hatches|
|12. the shop that the women own||25. the office where the editor-in-chief works|
|13. the opinions of each other|
Exercise 3. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes and then correct them.
1. In his fifteen-minutes speech he emphasized the importance of attracting industry to the town.
2. It’s reported that the custom’s officers foiled an attempt to smuggle the painting out of the country.
3. Before boarding the ship we have to go through customs and passport’s control.
4. She set out the company aims and objectives in her speech.
5. The residents are anxiously awaiting the local authorities decision.
6. The majority of teachers approve of a test at the end of a six-month course.
7. The hotel is within a stone’s throw of the beach.
8. I’m really at my wit’s end and don’t know what to do next.
9. The contents of the boy’s wardrobe were thoroughly examined though they strongly protested.
10. The committee’s second meeting was put off till Friday.
11. He keeps all his clients at arms’ length.
12. We had a nice time at John and Susan last night.
13. At the end of the five-day's trial, he was found guilty and sent to prison.
14. To get married before you are eighteen, you’ll need your parents approval and consent.
15. I'll see you at the tomorrow's meeting.
Exercise 4. Put the words into the plural form, read and translate them.
Hypothesis, datum, formula, analysis, takeoff, kimono, editor-in-chief, casino, calf, offspring, species, bridge, aircraft, synthesis, medium, terminus, archipelago, watch, volcano, salmon, sheaf, wharf, man-of-war, set-to, man-hole, criterion, church, ox, cactus, handful, tornado, mackerel, oasis, safe, woman-hater, good-for-nothing, lean-to, zero, thief, motto, works, louse, man-eater, grown-up, dwarf, series, hair-do, beach, bench, loaf, phenomenon, bamboo, holdall, merry-go-round, curriculum, hovercraft, life, concerto, tooth, belief, pick-pocket, Mr., cod, match, torpedo, antenna.
Exercise 5. Translate the words in brackets from Russian into English. Add articles where necessary.
1. Homework should not be used as (средство)__________ of controlling children.
2. He was surrounded by a crowd of friends and (приспешников)__________.
3. From 1960 to 1965 the Soviets launched twenty-six (космическихкораблей)__________ into deep space.
4. It’s a well-known fact that oil found in (лососе, сардинахискумбрии)__________ can stop the weight loss.
5. The cat jumped to the floor, darted through the legs of several (прохожих)__________, and disappeared into the bar.
5. To qualify for a grant, students must satisfy certain (критериям)__________.
6. We have to learn all the relevant chemical (формулы)__________.
7. He saw a young mother trying to control her two (отпрысков)__________.
8. It is a perfect location for (кактусов)__________.
9. The police are investigating (серию)__________ of attacks in the area.
10. The giant panda is (редкийвид)__________.
11. The final cost could be as much as two (миллиарда)__________ dollars.
12. What is the white (грибок)__________ on the roots of the plant?
13. It smells like the braided (буханки)__________ fresh from the baker's oven.
14. The brick (завод)__________ closed last year.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Ее кукольное личико выражало удивление.
2. Он прошел через комнату секретарши, не взглянув на нее.
3. Я провела неделю в гостях у подруги моей свекрови.
4. Женский голос позади меня тихо произнес чье-то имя.
5. Это было решение мудрого человека.
6. Они увидели шестифутовую дыру в стене.
7. В сегодняшней вечерней газете есть статья Питера на эту тему.
8. Наступило минутное молчание.
9. До его работы было несколько минут ходьбы.
10. Двухметровый забор отделяет участок мистера Симса от нашего.
11. Фильм рассказывает о карьере актрисы.
12. Десятичасовой полет был очень утомительным.
13. Полицейский записал имена всех свидетелей.
14. Поведение Стива и Джона постыдно.
15. Дом Смитов находится в двух шагах от дома моей свекрови.
16. В моем кошельке было две пятидолларовые банкноты.
17. На обед подали куриный суп, рисовый пудинг и вишневый пирог.
18. Они устраивали пятнадцатиминутный перерыв каждый час.
19. На этом заводе производят пятитонные грузовики.
20. В подарок она получила кукольный домик и книгу сказок.
21. Он никогда не пропускает шестичасовые новости.
22. Козье молоко полезно для здоровья.
23. Это любимая передача моей тещи.
24. Никто не может обсуждать приказ главнокомандующего.
25. Во времена правления королевы Елизаветы Англия посылала исследователей во многие страны.